Child abuse and neglect Flashcards | Quizlet

Berliner, L. 1991 Effects of sexual abuse on children.  1(10)(June):1,8,10-11.

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in the area of verbal intelligence (Augoustinos, 1987). Some studies have found lowered intellectual functioning and reduced cognitive functioning in abused children (Hoffman-Plotkin and Twentyman, 1984; Perry et al., 1983). However, others have not found differences in intellectual and cognitive functioning, language skills, or verbal ability (Alessandri, 1991; Allen and Oliver, 1982; Elmer, 1977; Lynch and Roberts, 1982).

Child Abuse And Neglect Case Study Social Work ..

Problematic school performance (e.g., low grades, poor standardized test scores, and frequent retention in grade) is a fairly consistent finding in studies of physically abused and neglected children (Eckenrode et al., 1991; Salzinger et al., 1984; Wolfe and Mosk, 1983), with neglected children appearing the most adversely affected. The findings for sexually abused children are inconsistent.

Dodge and colleagues (1990) found that physically harmed 4-year-old children showed deviant patterns of processing social information, related to aggressive behavior, at age 5. Physically harmed children (relative to nonphysically harmed children) were significantly less attentive to social cues, more inclined to attribute hostile intent, and less able to manage personal problems. They explain possible cognitive deficits in abused and neglected children by suggesting that physical abuse affects the development of social-information-processing patterns, which in turn lead to chronic aggressive behavior. The experience of severe physical harm is associated with the "acquisition of a set of biased and deficient patterns of processing social provocation information" (p. 1679).


form of self-enhancement to improve the child's self-esteem (Miller et al., 1989); or (4) to reduce feelings of isolation and loneliness (for a review, see Ireland and Widom, in press). Similar to escaping from an abusive home environment by running away, alcohol use may serve as a coping strategy adopted by abused and neglected children.

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Although victims of childhood abuse may be increasingly vulnerable to sexual promiscuity and at increased risk for teenage pregnancy, solid empirical evidence does not yet exist. Research is needed to clarify and extend our knowledge about possible causal relationships between different forms of childhood victimization and adolescent pregnancy, taking into account relevant demographic variables and confounding factors such as socioeconomic status (Brooks-Gunn and Furstenberg, 1989; Chase-Landale et al., 1991).

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Despite the hypothesized association, evidence supporting this relationship is sketchy. Relatively few studies have examined alcohol problems in adolescents who were abused or neglected in childhood, and even fewer have looked at these connections in nonclinical samples. One study found that physical abuse was significantly related to alcohol use in a cohort of high-risk youth prior to the initial interview, but not during the follow-up period about one year later (Dembo et al., 1990).

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In addition, parental alcohol problems may be antecedent to child maltreatment and may have an important role in influencing the parent's maltreating behavior. Since most child abuse is committed by biological parents, familial factors may contribute to a relationship between childhood victimization and a child's subsequent risk for alcohol problems. Children of parents with alcohol problems are generally at increased risk for the development of alcohol problems (Goodwin et al., 1973, 1977; Russell et al., 1985; Schuckit, 1986). If parents with alcohol problems are more likely to abuse or neglect their children, then multiple reasons might support hypotheses that their offspring will be at increased risk for the development of alcohol problems. Research is needed to disentangle the effects of an abusive or neglectful home environment on alcoholism from family history of alcoholism, multiple problems commonly facing abusive families, and other predispositions for alcohol problems.

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In contrast to the sparse literature on adolescent alcohol problems and childhood victimization, several studies suggest a relationship between childhood victimization and adolescent substance abuse, although the results of this research are sometimes inconsistent (Benward and Densen-Gerber, 1975; Cavaiola and Schiff, 1989; Dembo et al., 1987, 1989; Gomes-Schwartz et al., 1985; Harrison et al., 1989; Lindberg and Distad, 1985a; Runtz and