American Philosophy | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The term “American Philosophy,” perhaps surprisingly, has been somewhat vague

18th & 19th Century Quilts - Rocky Mountain Quilts

Ice cream sandwiches, as we Americans know them today, fall into the category of "novelties."According to the food historians, ice cream novelties were introduced in the late 19th/early 20thcentury.

In the late 19th century, thousands of Quebecers migrated to the northeastern United States to work in the mills.

18th & 19th Century American Antique Quilts

Africans arrived in what is now Peru alongside the first Spanish conquistadores. They served as military auxiliaries in expeditions, as intermediaries between Spaniards and Indians, and as builders of cities throughout the newly founded Viceroyalty of Peru (which until the 18th century encompassed most of Spanish South America). As the colonial enterprise evolved, so too did the role of slaves: in the early years of the lucrative silver mining industry in Potosí, the Spanish Crown imported African slaves to supplement Indian laborers. Although Africans never comprised as significant a presence in this sector as did their counterparts (owing to the Crown’s concerns over the expense of importing Africans to high altitudes, where they were thought likely to get sick and die), they were nonetheless important fixtures in the highlands, including gold mines at Carabaya, mercury mines at Huancavelica, hospitals in Arequipa, and textile mills and households in Cuzco. Slaves also held tremendous appeal to coastal colonists looking for labor to sustain everything from large estates to private households. By the 17th century, the Viceroyalty of Peru had become one of the most important centers of African slavery in the Americas. Because slavery had effects on and was shaped by nearly every aspect of colonial life from its earliest years through its abolition in 1854, scholars have been able to draw on a wealth of records—produced by notaries, the church, civil and criminal courts, and other entities—to produce in-depth studies of slaves’ experiences in urban and rural settings throughout the region. The work surveyed here includes the most accessible scholarship on the institution of slavery and its evolution over time, from general overviews to more in-depth studies of gender, race, religion, and the law. Some trends stand out: early scholarship on slavery served to mark slaves’ economic importance and demographic presence in the Viceroyalty as a whole, as well as their often brutal treatment at the hands of their owners. The 1990s saw the introduction of scholarship that focused primarily on what we now call Peru and highlighted how coastal slaves negotiated their status and shaped the gradual process of Peruvian abolition. And within the past decade or so, more recent scholarship has looked outward, to some degree, by placing Peru within the study of the African diaspora and drawing explicit links between the cultural and religious practices of slaves in Peru, Africa, and the Americas.

African American Studies Research Guide: African American Online Courses and Lectures

Recipes for the fancy molds (bombes) or bricks of vanilla,chocolate and strawberry (sometimes pistachio) were often included in 19th century Europeanand American cook books.