Primate Behavior - Basics in Human Evolution - Chapter 5
Korstjens, Amanda H. Sterck, Elisabeth H.M. Noë, Ronald. How adaptive or phylogenetically inert is primate social behaviour? A test with two sympatric colobines. Behaviour, Volume 139, Numbers 2-3, 2002, 203-225(23).
Mechanisms of social reciprocity in three primate …
George H. Young, Anthony M. Coelho Jr. and Claud A. Bramblett. The development of grooming, sociosexual behavior, play and aggression in captive baboons in their first two years. Primates, Volume 23, No. 4, October, 1982.
The Wisconsin National Primate Research Center has created this seriesof factsheets as a starting point to find information about the variousprimate species. Each PIN Factsheet covers one or more species, including morphology, ecology, behavior, and conservation with range maps, images, and an extensive glossary of terms to illustrate the text. New factsheets will be developed and added to this site on a regular basis.
Today in History: Rosalind Franklin ..
However, it is possible for someone to be dedicated to excellence andat the same time to be utterly indifferent to humanwell-being—and when this happens, we have no inclination to saythat such a person is motivated by altruism. Someone might be devotedto a subject—mathematics, or philosophy, orliterature—rather than to the well-being of those who study andmaster that subject. For example, imagine a student of literature whocares deeply about James Joyce’s Ulysses, because hetakes it to be one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. Hedoes not want that novel merely to gather dust on libraryshelves—it deserves readers who love and understand it, and sothe skills needed to appreciate it must be kept alive from onegeneration to another. This kind of devotion to perfectionist value isnot a form of altruism.
On July 25, 1920 the English biophysicist Rosalind Franklin was born
According to a doctrine called “psychological egoism”, allhuman action is ultimately motivated by self-interest. Thepsychological egoist can agree with the idea, endorsed by commonsense, that we often seek to benefit others besides ourselves; but hesays that when we do so, that is because we regard helping others as amere means to our own good. According to the psychological egoist, wedo not care about others for their sake. Altruism, in other words,does not exist.
Behavioral Biology Lab | Research
The psychological egoist can respond to this criticism in either oftwo ways. First, he might claim that his doctrine is supported byexperimental evidence. That is, he might believe that (i) the subjectsstudied by psychologists in carefully conducted experiments have beenshown to be not purely altruistic, or (more strongly) that thesesubjects ultimately care only about their own good; and (ii) that wecan infer from these experiments that all human beings aremotivated in the same way.
Research includes theoretical studies of ..
We have no reason to suppose that human behavior is so uniform in itsmotivation. A far more plausible hypothesis about human motives isthat they vary a great deal from one person to another. Some peopleare never altruistic; others are just as this weak form ofpsychological egoism says: they are altruistic, but only when theythink this will not detract from their own well-being; and then thereis a third and large category filled with people who, to some degreeor other, are willing to sacrifice their well-being for others. Withinthis category there is wide range—some are willing to make onlysmall sacrifices, others larger sacrifices, and some extraordinarilylarge sacrifices. This way of thinking has the great advantage ofallowing our experience of each individual to provide us with theevidence by means of which we characterize him. We should not labeleveryone as an egoist on the basis of some a priori theory;rather, we should assess each person’s degree of egoism andaltruism on the basis of what we can discern of their motives.