How to cite this article: Attachment: Synthesis
The younger the child is, the more embedded his or her behavior and biopsychosocial equilibrium are in relationships with parents and other carers. The determination whether any putative manifestation of a mental disorder is truly pathological, or just an expression of normality, can only be made in reference to the child’s current stage of development and its characteristic features. The diagnostic nomenclature in German-speaking countries is not uniform: Cierpka () mainly takes a developmental point of view and attempts to describe disorders of development in terms of their embedding in interpersonal relationships, without applying psychiatric diagnoses at this early stage. In contrast, von Gontard () tries to follow the psychiatric disorders defined in the ICD-10 and DSM-V diagnostic manuals (, , ) backward in time, assessing the qualitative and quantitative aspects of their occurrence in early childhood. In the DC:0–3R classification (), groups of clinical disorders and relationship disorders are defined on distinct diagnostic axes. In this article, we proceed from the point of view of early childhood development, describing typical relationship disorders in early childhood and giving examples of clinical syndromes that influence major biopsychological regulatory systems (food intake, motor function, affect). In a final section, we discuss diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.
In: Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Peters RDeV, eds
The diagnostician should act cautiously when assigning psychopathological significance to symptoms arising in early childhood but should still be able to recognize mental disorders early from the way they are embedded in the child’s interactive relationships with parents or significant others, and then to initiate the appropriate treatment. Psychotherapy in this age group is still in need of validation by efficacy studies and longitudinal studies of adequate quality.
However, there is no way of knowing this fromreading Cardillo's paper, because she has no other attachment style descriptions withwhich to compare! Cardillo makes a nice attempt to explain what goes on in adolescence and earlyadulthood in terms of intimate relationships.
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Attachment Through the Life Course | Noba
The concept of ‘internal working models’ akin to cybernetic information systems infers pragmatism and yet may be likened to the use of schemata in cognitive therapy or the introjection of an object intrapsychically in object relations psychoanalysis. Internal working models of the self and attachment figures are acquired through interactions with attachment figures. Bowlby (1973) proposed that firstly, when a person is confident that an attachment figure is available, he is less prone to fear responses, that secondly, this confidence is established throughout childhood, particularly in infancy and once established remains stable throughout life, and thirdly that styles of relating to others are accurate reflections of experiences in early relationships.