18th century recipes | The Cookbook of Unknown Ladies
Abstract/Résumé : As part of ongoing efforts by the authors to document human-environment relationships among the Inuit of north-central Labrador, Canada, paleoecological investigations were undertaken at the Uivak Point site (HjCl-09), an Inuit settlement located in Okak Bay occupied from the 18th to 19th century. The site consists of a winter village comprising the ruins of nine semi-subterranean sod houses located on two marine terraces and a number of warm season tent ring structures. These were in use during the late 18th to early 19th century although the immediate locality has seen many episodes of occupation by many cultural groups spanning from prehistory into the 20th century. Between ca. 3030 and ca. 710 cal. yr B.P., climate conditions were cold and dry, which is consistent with the late of the Neoglacial period. These cold and dry conditions generated the abundance of shrub tundra and a very open spruce forest cover. From ca. 1000 to ca. 550 cal yr B.P., conditions became warmer and wetter, triggering the expansion of trees and the diversification of shrubs and herbs. Since ca. 550 cal yr B.P., there has been an abundance of dry taxa. This vegetation change, in particular between 500 and 100 cal. yr B.P, may reflect the onset of colder conditions during the Little Ice Age. Subsequent climate warming has allowed the re-expansion of trees and shrubs at regional and local scales over a period of about 200 years. Moreover, our results indicate that the Thule/Inuit harvested many plant species that grew in locality of Uivak Point for subsistence, fuel and raw materials in daily life. As a result of plant harvesting and trampling around the houses, many anthropogenic remains such as burned fat, burned leaves of mosses and charcoal were incorporated into the soil. These activities also triggered the establishment of some weeds and apophytes such as Montiana fontanan and Silene. Furthermore, our chronostratigraphical and paleoecological data suggest that the site was occupied on an irregular basis since 1400 AD.
fine art dealers | Clio Ancient Art & Antiquities
Abstract/Résumé : The history of the Christianization of the Greenlanders by the Danish Lutheran State Mission in the 18th and 19th century presents itself as an excellent ground for studies of cross-cultural negotiation of ideas and values, for instance related to naming. The study of naming practices contributes to our understanding of personhood, alliances and social organisation. Sources from the mission in Greenland such as church registers and designations provide detailed information about individual persons and families as well as naming and re-naming practices in the local communities.
The paper presents an examination of the church registers from the late 18th century and early 19th century concerning names recorded in connection to baptism of children and adults in the Disko Bay area and in particular in the Aasiaat district. In the cases of adult baptism, the Pre-Christian Inuit names are recorded side-by-side with the new Christian names. Inuit names are to some extent used as baptism names well into the 19th century. Family names (surnames) gradually came into use: European names for children from mixed marriages, but also in some cases Inuit names came into use as family names - fixed family names were common at the end of the 19th century, on the whole following the legislation in Denmark.
The paper discusses the name change process through two integrated perspectives: the Christian re-naming as an asymmetric colonial ‘contact zone’ (referring to Mary Louise Pratt) with intentions of re-framing persons and families as subjects incorporated into the Danish church and state – and on the other hand the often subtle integration of the Inuit name-sake practice into the Christian naming practice.
Abstract/Résumé : A large number of Arctic items are present in French museums since the creation of public museums at the end of the 18th Century. The majority of the collections have arrived on French soil, thanks to the interest of private persons, passionate by the Arctic regions - collectors and travellers- as well through exchanges between international institutions. Despite their physical presence the majority of the collections in France before the 1940’s, very few studies were done.
This presentation will be the occasion to question ourselves on the collection methods used during the past two centuries as well as on the rediscovery, about a decade ago of the oldest collections. A museum’s life being in perpetual evolution, what can we perceive when comparing modern acquisitions, compared to those that took place in the past? What about the desire to buy Arctic collections in the beginning of the 21st century ? What place is given to contemporary works? My researches initiated in 1999, have allowed to identify all French institutions that detain artefacts and to trace the history of these items through the original context of acquisition. Throughout the presentation, we will analyse a French specificity since the French Revolution, linked to the juridical state of conserved items that gives to the artefacts an irrevocable and inalienable status.