Critical Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Critical Theory - Definition and Overview in Sociology

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Many interesting works in media studies are addressing themselves to critical and qualitative approaches to study, and our work – especially on the – is a part of this collection. Because the Internet is a relatively recent popular media, there are many questions that emerge relative to how the Internet may inhibit or promote freedoms and justice. Studies linking qualitative and critical research can address these questions, adding an important historical perspective to analyses that are often either overly optimistic or pessimistic. We invite you to explore our publications and offer your responses to our work as it seeks to flesh out this emergent research paradigm.

Critical Theory and Constructivism: Theory and Methods for the Teens and the New Media @ Home Project

Critical Thinking Basic Theory and Instructional Structures

The current project attempts to address these concerns, with its emphasis upon listening to people who are disadvantaged in the contemporary situation. The project retains the assumption that critical theorists aim to offer an emancipatory analysis, thus making it a non-relativist project. It is perhaps best described, using the Marxist anthropologist Sherry Ortner’s (1993) phrase, as an “issues-oriented ethnography,” as it seeks to explore the ways in which societal issues and their contradictions are worked out in the context of complex “lived” lives that are situated with reference to class, race, place, gender, and other identifications.

In their embrace of a normative perspective, Critical theorists make no claims that their analyses are “objective” in the sense usually meant by logical positivists. In fact, critical theorists argue that the subjective/objective dualism masks the ways in which both positions are limited by the social forces that inform all human action and analysis. Critical qualitative research acknowledges subjectivism in the sense that learnings and interpretations cannot be based on logic and scientific analysis only. While it affirms that knowledge can never be separated completely from the researcher’s own experience, it rejects the notion that all analyses are relative. It asserts that rational analysis is fundamental to human emancipation, and hence embraces what Morrow (1994) calls critical realism


International Relations Theory: A Critical ..

7. Both are concerned with a reasoned analysis of social life (although critical theorists extend this concern to relate such a reasoned analysis with emancipation).

New book explores ‘ethical turn’ of critical theory : …

5. Both traditions stress that meaning and language are socially constructed (although critical researchers are quick to point out that while interpretations may be constructed, forces of oppression are real in their consequences and hence may be understood as such).

Socialist Hitler: Father of today's 'critical race theory'? - WND

These claims about norms raise two difficulties. First, there is apotential regress of rules, that is, that explicit rules requiresfurther rules to apply them, and so on. Second, this approach cannotcapture how norms are often only implicit in practices rather thanexplicitly expressed (Brandom 1994, 18–30). Here Habermas sides withPettit in seeing the central function of explicit norms as creating acommons that can serve as the basis for institutionalizing norms, aspace in which the content of norms and concepts can be put up forrational reflection and revision (Pettit 1992, Habermas 1990). Makingsuch implicit norms explicit is thus also the main task of theinterpretive social scientist and is a potential source of socialcriticism; it is then the task of the participant-critic in thedemocratic public sphere to change them. There is one more possiblerole for the philosophically informed social critic. As we have seenin the case of ideological speech, the reconstructive sciences“also explain deviant cases and through this indirect authorityacquire a critical function as well” (Habermas, 1990,32).

Critical Theory and Constructivism - IHRCS

4. As a further challenge to logical positivism, both eschew the problem of bias in research. Humanistic, constructivist researchers argue that “bias” should be reconceptualized in light of the subjective position of the researcher, viewed as that which informs and strengthens one’s interpretation. Critical researchers, particularly those operating within post-colonialist and feminist paradigms, tend to insist upon a recognition of power differentials between research participants and those conducting the research, thus locating “bias” in social systems rather than or in addition to a particular research situation.

Critical international relations theory - Wikipedia

As first generation Critical Theorists saw it in the 1940s, thisprocess of reification occurs at two different levels. First, itconcerned a sophisticated analysis of the contrary psychologicalconditions underlying democracy and authoritarianism; second, thisanalysis was linked to a social theory that produced an account ofobjective, large-scale, and long-term historical processes ofreification. If these facts and trends are true, then the idea of a“true totality” is a plausible critical category. However, thisconcept is ill suited for democratic theory due to a lack of claritywith regard to the underlying positive political ideal of CriticalTheory. Finally, in reaction to these normative failures, Habermasseeks to develop an intermediate level of analysis and a new normativeconception in the historical analysis of the emergence of the“public sphere” (Öffentlichkeit). As his later andmore fully developed normative theory of democracy based onmacrosociological social facts about modern societies shows, Habermasoffers a modest and liberal democratic ideal based on the public use ofreason within the empirical constraints of modern complexity anddifferentiation. This social theory may make it difficult for him tomaintain some aspects of radical democracy as an expressive andrational ideal that first generation critical theorists saw as agenuine alternative to liberalism.