The final point Darwin introduces are the functions of evolution.

He is responsible for the theory of evolution that people of today still go by.
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Erasmus Darwin, created the theory of evolution and his father, Dr.

The Double Standard of Morality by Josephine Butler and Victorian Theories of Sex and Sexuality by Elizabeth Lee give us insight into ideas people had about sex and sexuality during the Victorian era.

His theories led to the study of the modern evolutionary theory of the world.
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Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and The Victorian Crisis of ..

One of the arguments mustered against Darwin's theory was the complexity of the human eye, which couldn't function properly without all its components working just right. Surely something so complex couldn't evolve through gradual change, critics argued. But more primitive eyes can be found in nature. Freshwater flatworms get by with simple eyespots: aggregates of pigment cells that distinguish between light and darkness without the aid of nerves.

According to Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection man lives in a struggle to survive.
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In regard to the Paper in Annals, I agree to the truth of almost every word of your paper; & I daresay that you will agree with me that it is very rare to find oneself agreeing pretty closely with any theoretical paper; for it is lamentable how each man draws his own different conclusions from the very same fact.-

This summer will make the 20th year (!) since I opened my first-note-book, on the question how & in what way do species & varieties differ from each other.

Erasmus Darwin's work includes the following acceptance of heritable evolutionary change:-
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Early Theories of Evolution: Darwin and Natural Selection

- These facts origin (especially latter) of all my views.'The direction of Darwin's thoughts can perhaps be illustrated by this famous sketch:-


Charles Darwin's Tree of Life sketch from his Notebook B dating from 1837-8, (and deemed by editors of Darwin's papers to be concerned with his thoughts about the Transmutation of Species), shows his early theoretical insight of how a genus of related species might originate by divergence from a starting point (1).

An accompanying text annotation reads:-

I think

Case must be that one generation then should be as many living as now.

Darwin's Theory of Evolution: Definition & Evidence



From Darwin's notebook B now stored in Cambridge University library

The above "Tree of Life sketch" appears on page 36 of the notebook - the first 35 pages being effectively taken up by Darwin's consideration of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin's earlier evolutionary musings as published in Zoonomia; or the Laws of Organic Life (1794) a two-volume medical work dealing with pathology, anatomy, psychology, and the functioning of the body.

The ways in which the revolutionary theories of ..

Over the course of their evolutionary history, many organisms have lost genes, but sometimes the function of the discarded gene can be regained by repurposing genetic material the species has left. Many vertebrate species possess three genes related to taste, named T1R1, T2R2 and T3R3. Among this trio, T2R2 gives humans and other animals the ability to taste sweet foods. Genetic studies indicate that birds have lost the gene that would enable them to appreciate a candy store. But nectar-sipping hummingbirds show a clear preference for a sugary diet. A study led by Maude Baldwin in 2014 concluded that hummingbirds had repurposed T1R1 and T3R3, which pair up to sense umami (savory) flavors, to sense sweet ones as well. Baldwin postulated that hummingbird ancestors might have been introduced to a sweet diet by hanging out near flowers to catch insects. If so, it would bolster Darwin's claim that taste "must be acquired by certain foods being habitual — [and] hence become hereditary," though Baldwin cautioned that more evidence, such as early hummingbird fossils, was needed to flesh out her hypothesis.

Early Theories of Evolution: Pre-Darwinian Theories

Darwin's book introduces the theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through the progression of natural selection, the process in which more desirable traits which help an organism survive are transmitted to subsequent generations.