The Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations - NMC - UofT

Middle Eastern Civilizations Flashcards | Quizlet

Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations - 2016-2017 …


The Near East is generally understood to refer to the region at the eastern end of the Mediterranean and beyond, from ancient times up to the advent of Islam in the seventh century CE. The Middle East begins with the advent of Islam and refers to a much broader geographical area whose predominant Islamic culture in medieval and modern times has stretched to North Africa and Spain in the west and to Central Asia, India, and Southeast Asia in the east.

The Department welcomes students of all academic backgrounds who wish to learn about the Near and Middle East. , and introduce students to the ancient Near East, including ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Israel, while introduces students to the Islamic world. Students pursuing a Specialist or Major program are required to take two of these Gateway courses and are given the option to enrol in one of four streams: an open stream, an ancient stream, a medieval stream, or a modern stream.

Ancient Near East | Ancient Mediterranean | Khan Academy

The second migration (OOA) at about 50,000 years ago, saw at least three groups of Modern Man take an "Inland" route through Southern Asia and up into Northern Asia. There one group, (that we call Mongols) eventually founded the Xia and Shang civilizations in China. Another group, (that we call Jomon), migrated to Japan. And another group, that were probably initially Albinos; (not a put-down, that is simply what the evidence indicates - ). Today we call these people, who because of admixture, are no longer Albinos "Caucasians'), they migrated to Central Asia. Soon after that time, the Glaciers in Europe started to melt, and "Modern man" (not Cro-Magnon, he entered later at about 35,000 ya), in the person of "Grimaldi Man" entered Europe through the Straits of Gibraltar at about 45,000 years ago. There is general consensus in the worlds scientific community that the preceding is accurate to a best "available evidence" certainty.

The problem is that the previously alluded to "Caucasians" sometime around 2,000 B.C, and for unknown reasons, decided to leave their Central Asian homelands and move West and South - see the Kurgan Hypothesis. They reached India (the Arian's) at about 1,700 B.C, and conquered the Black Dravidians who had created the Indus Valley civilizations there. At about the same time, other groups reached Eastern Europe, where they eventually conquered the Black cultures there.


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The were a Central European civilization featured in as an infantry civilization, who dominated much of Europe, such as Poland, Germany, Spain, France, and the British Isles. The Celts in are the Celts of Scotland, Ireland and Wales in Western Europe. Their unique unit is the , a type of infantry who covers himself in paint made from the woad plant to make himself look more fearsome. Woad Raiders run very fast, allowing them to overcome the normal infantry weaknesses versus archers and siege weapons. Their unique technology is , which refers to the Celtic warrior tradition of channeling their emotions and anger and makes their siege weapons harder to kill. Being masters of guerilla warfare, Celtic infantry run faster. Because of their historical wood and metalworking, their Siege Workshops build faster, their Lumberjacks work faster, and their Siege Weapons fire faster. Like their neighbors the Britons, the Celts were historically skilled shepherds, and they can steal enemy sheep even if enemy's units are watching them.

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent

The were a Central European civilization featured in as an infantry civilization, who dominated much of Europe, such as Poland, Germany, Spain, France, and the British Isles. The Celts in are the Celts of Scotland, Ireland and Wales in Western Europe. Their unique unit is the , a type of infantry who covers himself in paint made from the woad plant to make himself look more fearsome. Woad Raiders run very fast, allowing them to overcome the normal infantry weaknesses versus archers and siege weapons. Their unique technology is , which refers to the Celtic warrior tradition of channeling their emotions and anger and makes their siege weapons harder to kill. Being masters of guerilla warfare, Celtic infantry run faster. Because of their historical wood and metalworking, their Siege Workshops build faster, their Lumberjacks work faster, and their Siege Weapons fire faster. Like their neighbors the Britons, the Celts were historically skilled shepherds, and they can steal enemy sheep even if enemy's units are watching them.

The Original Black Cultures of Eastern Europe and Asia

The were an East Asian civilization featured in as an archer civilization, based on the Tang and Song dynasties of medieval China. The Chinese were best known for their unprecedented technological innovations and highly populated cities that can accommodate millions of people by the 1200s, with the largest being Hangzhou. To reflect this achievement and for being one of the civilizations that suffered the least during the Dark Ages, they start with extra villagers and their Town Centers support a higher population. Although they have fewer resources to compensate, allied farms produce extra food. The unique unit of the Chinese is the , a foot archer wielding the eponymous semi-automatic crossbow invented by the Chinese that would load a new bolt simultaneously as soon as the last one was fired. Chu Ko Nu fire multiple arrows at once and, if employed en masse, they can wreak havoc on infantry and even cavalry. Their unique technology, , reflects their discovery of gunpowder. It seems that the Chinese in Age of Empires II have a more crude understanding of gunpowder, as Rocketry benefits their Scorpions and their Chu Ko Nu by giving them higher damage rather than benefit any of their gunpowder units which are unavailable to them. To reflect the non-cannon uses of gunpowder, their Demolition Ships take more damage to destroy and thus they can reach their targets easier. Finally, the Chinese research all technologies more cheaply than any other civilization due to being the one of the most advanced civilizations on Earth during the timeframe of .