JAFSA - Japan Network for International Education
Since thelate 1880s, publiceducation had been based on patriotism and Confucianism. Thefirst Minister of Education, Mori Arinori, replaced comparativelyliberal western-style education with nationalistic and Confucianeducation in the late 1880s. The 1890 Imperial Rescript onEducation, the core of prewar education in Japan, emphasized Confucianprinciples, such as loyalty to the emperor, filial piety, and affectionand trust among family and friends. In addition, threecompulsoryhours of ethics were taught to children each week in the 1890s (Gluck1985:150).
Japan Education Information Center, Kuala Lumpur, …
Initial teacher training for technology education and vocational technical education primarily occurs in the Engineering Colleges or technical education departments of national universities. Because of rapid changes in technology it is often necessary for technology education and vocational technical education teachers to be retrained. After each major curriculum revision (usually a ten-year cycle), the plans and implements in- service training programs. A good example is the major in- service effort to prepare the approximately 16,000 Japanese technology education teachers to teach the new course on computer literacy. In the first stage of the in-service program, about 160 technology teachers received two weeks of full-time in-service training. Over a three-year period, a total of 480 such "lead teachers" received similar training. In addition to the two weeks of intensive training, these teachers assume personal responsibility for self-study about computers. Each newly retrained teacher returned to their district and began training other technology teachers in their district. In-service training at the district level continued for four years (1988 through 1992) providing in- service training to all technology education teachers in Japan ( ).
Every one of the 47 prefectures (regional self governing bodies) in Japan has an education center that includes a department of technology/industry-related education (including information technology). Some of the large prefectures have independent centers for information technology or technical education. These educational institutions serve several functions including teacher retraining, development of teaching materials, and research on educational methods. In order to use prefectural educational budgets effectively, educational centers are equipped with expensive facilities such as large scale computer systems and machining centers.
Many other features of the Japanese educational system, ..
Localpubliceducational expenditures in the 2002-3 school year amounted to 18.1trillion yen, including 81.2 percent for school education, 12.9 percentfor social education, and 5.9 percent for educationaladministration. The budgets were derived from the prefecturaladministration (44.4%), the local administration (33.2%), the nationaladministration (18.1%), local bonds (4.1%) and donations(0.2%). The expense per student in the 2002-3 school year was 738,624 yen perpreschooler, 923,566 yen per elementary school student, 1,027,678 yenper middle school student, 9,107,237 yen per special school student,and 1,157,366 yen per high school student. The governmentspentnine times more money for students in special schools, with ninemillion yen per student than those in regular schools (Monbukagakushō2004f). In 1970, the Japanese government started subsidizingprivate schools and colleges. Subsidies to private collegeswereabout 30 percent of revenues in the early 1980s, but decreased to 12.2percent in 2000 (Monbukagakushō 2004b:66).
Let's discuss changes to education in Japan | The Japan Times
The following are four major challenges facing technology education in Japan. How well Japan is able to meet these challenges will determine the nature and effectiveness of technology education in the future.
Japanese Educational System - JASSO
Highly competitive entrance examinations are an important aspect of education in Japan. Especially important are the university entrance examinations which determine which students will be accepted at prestigious Japanese uni- versities. Since admission to prestigious universities will result in various lifelong advantages, parents encourage their children to begin preparing for entrance examinations at an early age. The national university examinations cover five major areas: mathematics, Japanese, English, natural science, and the humanities. The entrance examination does not include content from technology education, home economics, fine arts, or health education. As a result, Japanese parents tend to regard these subjects as subordinate to subjects that are included in the entrance examinations. The influence of parents is strong, affecting the attitudes and actions of students and teachers.
Japanese Education - World Status in Education
Several years ago, I was among the guests to dine with an education minister of the Netherlands. He told us that during his visit to Japan, he was often told by Japanese people that they envied the education in his country and wished the Japanese education system could be more like it. He said he was surprised since he had come to Japan to learn about Japanese education, which in Europe enjoys the reputation of having a high academic standard and success rate. He wondered why there was so much dissatisfaction.