Operation Torch: Allied Invasion of North Africa | HistoryNet

Goal #5: To discuss the expectations of Europeans who favored exploration to North America

The european invasion of north america - Atrio Business …

Hawaii, Cuba, Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico became outright American colonies, no different than how European powers operated. In 1900, American troops participated in putting down the Boxer “Rebellion,” to help keep China under the white man’s boot. The USA also began playing a slightly different version of the imperial game, and the earliest and perhaps greatest instance of its novel colonialism was how it invented Panama. Neocolonialism is colonialism in everything but the name, and accordingly, the American Empire is an empire in everything but the name. The main difference is that the subject peoples get to fly their own flags as symbols of their illusionary independence. The oppression and exploitation is simply carried out by than the traditional colonial ones.

EARLY SETTLEMENTSThe early 1600s saw the beginning of a great tide ofemigration from Europe to North America.

The Impact Of The European Invasion On The Native …

The filth, violence, starvation, disease, and overall misery of Europe made life a pretty cheap commodity, which is made evident by some telling statistics. During the 1600s, the life expectancy of a male in Europe’s ruling families was 28 years. As previously noted, that first Portuguese voyage to India had about a 25% survival rate, and the risk was so high on that voyage that criminals were forced into being crewmembers. A 75% mortality rate was a bit high, but during the next two centuries, Portugal launched about 15,000 men per year (and a few women) on its trade route. The mortality rate for the two-year voyage to Asia and back was about 25%. A death rate of a third of the passengers and crew was typical. It is difficult to imagine anybody loading up ships today, to distant lands, with that projected survival rate. As late as 1762, ten ships of the Dutch East India Company lost more than 1,000 people, about 45% of those aboard, just sailing from the Netherlands to the Cape of Good Hope. was the biggest killer on the high seas, but was far from the only one. Living on a ship of the day challenged even the European tolerance for squalor. Not surprisingly, mutiny was a constant risk, and draconian methods were used to keep the crews in line. In an early English attempt at colonization, at , the colony simply disappeared. The next attempt, at , was only sustained by the continual influx of colonists. During the first generation of the English invasion, nearly a third of the invaders died in the first year. In 1624, of about 7,000 colonists who arrived in Jamestown since 1607, only 1,200 still survived.

Not surprisingly, the best and brightest that Europe had to offer were rarely aboard those ships. They were not all impressed criminals and the death rates aboard were not state secrets, although deception was usually used in recruiting efforts. The turnip truck could not keep showing up for two centuries, so imagine the kinds of people who accepted a 25% risk of death by hiring onto a ship bound for Asia. People coming from those backgrounds would not make many gentle and enlightened encounters with peoples of distant lands, particularly when they came from Earth's most violent culture, and the Iberian Peninsula was no exception. The Iberian Peninsula had been the scene of innumerable invasions and forced migrations during the previous millennia, and four centuries of nearly continual warfare, raging across the peninsula, made the Spanish and Portuguese cultures thoroughly militaristic. The violence that they were about to unleash, on a global scale, had never been witnessed before.


At the time, a successful voyage to India was more useful news to the European powers than what . In 1500, 13 ships, with Dias captaining one of them, set sail toward India again. The fleet visited Brazil along the way, taking a circuitous route around Africa, and seven ships were lost, including Dias’s. The six-month journey returned to Calicut on the western coast of India, and once again the reception was less than welcoming. The Portuguese retaliated by bombarding the city with cannons and burning boats. A series of explicitly military voyages ensued, and the Portuguese violently established a trade route to India and conquered the Muslim port of Goa in 1510. In 1511, Portugal conquered Malacca, in today’s Malaysia, which was the spice trade’s heart. While the Portuguese found the Arabs and other Muslims relatively easy to defeat militarily, and seizing their trading ports was how Portugal established itself, the Chinese Empire was another matter. The in the early 1400s were tremendous, with more than 20,000 men on each excursion. The few Portuguese boats that arrived failed to overawe the Chinese, who were far more civilized than the European interlopers. The Portuguese were reduced to smuggling as they continued to try gaining trading rights with China, and they began trading with Japan in 1543. In 1557, Portugal finally secured the rights to an easily watched and non-defendable tip of a peninsula. Their toehold became Macau. Pepper was by far the greatest import from Portugal’s trade route to Asia, which amounted to about 6,000 tons annually by 1520 and accounted for about 40% of Crown revenues.

Atrocities Against Native Americans - United to End Genocide

Before the middle of the 17th century, the native population in Mexico bottomed out at perhaps less than ten percent of the pre-conquest population. After that, it began a slow recovery. After studying what the Spanish did to the Caribbean and periphery, what they did to the Aztecs and Mesoamerica, what they did to the Incas and South America, their “explorations” into North America, what the Portuguese did to Brazil, and after looking at the death rates in the mines, plantations and periphery, I estimate that more than 10 million natives died as a direct result of the violence and greed of the Spanish and Portuguese during the 1500s, and perhaps even 20 million (in Alexander Del Mar's , he estimated 20 million deaths in the mining operations alone). Some can argue for as few as ten million (while others argue that there were not ten million natives in the whole hemisphere), and others can argue for as many as 30 million. European diseases killed off another 50 million natives or so in the 1500s, and the Spanish and Portuguese labor practices probably contributed substantially to those 50 million deaths. It is within the range of modern estimates to say that the New World’s human population declined by 90% during the first century of the European invasion, or by about 70 million people, and even the low end of the modern estimates have around 30 million natives dying, for "only" a 75% depopulation. It is an immense tally, with nothing in world history to compare it to.

Expansion of Phragmites australis into tidal wetlands …

Spaniards remade the New World's ecological systems. Imported cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, and donkeys dominated the landscape. Chickens became a barnyard staple. Sugar, bananas, and citrus fruits were introduced and flourished. In many places, the landscape was altered beyond recognition. Spain was a land of shepherds and cattle ranchers, and many farmers in Spain were put out of business as the rich, herd-owning, land-owning aristocracy obtained the legal rights for their livestock to overrun the land. Spain's great herds helped make it such an arid land, and the same thing happened to New Spain. South of the great bison herds of North America, there were no large roaming herds of grazing animals. Huge tracts of farmland were destroyed throughout the New World by those imported European grazers, and areas previously cultivated or unused were quickly destroyed, leaving a desert-like environment behind. In Spain, sheep dominated. In New Spain, cattle dominated. Deforestation and mass grazing altered the landscape immensely. In a and eastern Atlantic islands, Spaniards noted that when they razed the forests for their lifestyles, streams dried up and eventually there was less rainfall. The desert-like environment of Mexico is not completely natural, but is partly the result of Spanish depredations. Not only was 75-90% of the human population exterminated, the first century of the Spanish invasion was also the greatest ecological catastrophe for native plants and animals in history, rivaled, and in ways exceeded, by what the English and Americans would later do to North America.