List of fictional countries - Wikipedia
On November 11, 1885, Mark Twain read an early draft of what would become at the Military Service Institution, Governor's Island, New York. Although many contemporaries praised the work, a close friend expressed concern regarding Twain's humiliating treatment of characters from Thomas Malory's , Twain's chief inspiration for his novel. In response to her concerns, he observed in a letter, "The story isn't a satire peculiarity," he explained, "but more especially a contrast" between Arthurian times and the present. Twain explained that he was only "after the life of that day and that is all: to picture it; to try to get into it; to see how it feels & seems… & I should grieve indeed if…the extinction of its old tender & gracious friendships…should lose their pathos and their tears through my handling," (, 258). But it is true that the "great & beautiful characters drawn by the master hand of old Malory" (, 258) would draw new breath through Twain's pen. As Twain's new hero was developed, the other characters began to reflect Hank, in ways that were not necessarily true to Malory's depictions of them them in . Unique interactions with legendary fictional heros make Hank a deep, complex character, while allowing the reader to more easily access his ambiguities. Ironically, this dynamic is the very element of the novel most often altered in adaptations.
Arthur Miller's The Crucible: Fact & Fiction, by Margo …
Geoffrey Ashe, for example, has called attention to a figure referred to as 'Riothamus', a title meaning 'high king', who led an army to the continent and who, Ashe speculates, may have been associated with Arthur by Geoffrey of Monmouth (the author of a "history" of the kings of Britain, a work which introduces into the tradition many fictional elements that are now seen as essential parts of the story of Arthur).
Barczewski finishes her study with a consideration of the relationship between British imperialism and representations of Arthur and Robin Hood. In view of the already substantial research undertaken on the uses of Arthurian legend to educate and motivate the servants of empire, she chooses to concentrate on one theme, the pursuit of the Holy Grail. This allows her to suggest that tales of the Round Table did not simply reinforce the rampant popular imperialism which is so often the subject of studies of the culture of imperialism. Treatments of Galahad, Perceval and the ultimate quest by J.H. Shorthouse and S.K. Levett-Yeats reveal, she suggests, 'a pervasive cynicism which reveals the anxieties which plagued British imperial endeavour in the final decades of the nineteenth century' (p. 223). While versions of the quest for the Holy Grail reveal dis-ease with the imperial project, Barczewski argues, portrayals of the legend of Robin Hood were often the vehicles for more direct criticism. Linking Arthurian legends to the sea and British naval power, she argues that the association of Robin Hood with Sherwood Forest makes the legend a platform for an anti-imperialist, 'Little Englander' agenda. After all - and Victorian audiences did not miss this point - the parlous condition of Robin's England resulted from Richard I's commitment to the Crusades and Continental wars. Moreover, Robin's resistance to tyranny at home often seemed very similar to the activities of colonial independence activists (both fictional and actual) who had fallen foul of the British imperial authorities. By the close of the century, Robin's function as vox populi made him a standing argument for late-nineteenth-century opponents of imperialism in the socialist and radical camps.