Indian Removal Act of 1830 – Legends of America
Students should become familiar with presidential Indian policy, beginning with Thomas Jefferson’s policy of acculturation and assimilation. In his he endorsed “continued efforts to introduce among them the implements and the practice of husbandry, and of the household arts.” He reiterated this position in his State of the Nation Addresses of and . Students should carefully note that assimilation would put Indian land into white hands. Two sites give full texts of : the first, between Indian nations and the United States; the second, restricted to and those nations significant to the Chickasaw.
Indian Treaties and the Removal Act of 1830
As support for reservation schools began to wither, voices of opposition began to rise. The schools were criticized as tools for making Indians dependent rather than self-reliant. Schools were criticized as cruel for separating the children from their families. The structure and political support for the philosophies and activities of the reservation boarding schools was fast eroding by the early 20th century. The writings of Zitkala-Sa and others were encouraging the development of new educational theory. One of the voices of the child study movement, G. Stanley Hall..."urged teachers to build on an Indian child's natural capacities and background rather than obliterate them. Hall asked, " Why not make him a good Indian rather than a cheap imitation of the white man?""
This primary force behind this Act were southern states such as Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi who had large Indian populations within their boundaries and who were conflicting with the Indians over matters such as rights to natural resources, settlement, and legal jurisdiction. These conflicts came to a boiling point in Georgia especially, where the discovery of gold within Cherokee territory sparked a huge rush of miners to the area. This brought to light an equally important issue of legal jurisdiction over the Indian territories, which to this point retained some degree of independence despite state government claims of sovereignty. In the Niles' Weekly Register, for example, Georgia Governor George Gilmer is quoted as saying that the powers vested in the executive department by the constitution and laws do not sufficiently enable the governor to remove or restrain such trespassers.'
Oct 20, 2012 · The Indian Removal Act
For those nations that did not wish to assimilate, Jefferson offered them removal to territory west of the Mississippi. Within two decades, at the insistence of the Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi legislatures and the urging of Andrew Jackson, removal became the nation’s official policy. This policy had widespread public support among Americans. Students should read the full text of the . The over removal contains the forceful speeches of Maine Senator Peleg Sprague and Georgia Senator John Forsyth, against and for removal respectively. President Jackson’s First, Second, and Seventh deal with Indian removal.
The US government passed a law in 1830 called the Indian Removal Act
The southern states’ efforts to invalidate federal treaties and open Indian land to whites mounted a sectional challenge to federal authority; Jackson responded to these state challenges by pressuring tribes into signing removal treaties. The Cherokee resisted these efforts and brought suit in court. If teachers want to provide a broader context for this challenge, they can visit--or refer students to-- the Wisconsin Judicare’s Indian Law Office’s collection of Federal Indian laws. This collection includes the full text of Supreme Court decisions in (1831) and (1832). When Jackson refused to enforce the Supreme Court decisions that favored the Cherokee, a tribal faction pushed through the , which acceded to removal. The part of in 1830 may be compared to the antebellum expansion of cotton production., built in Georgia to house the Cherokee before their journey west, are listed in this site. An 1836 map shows each tribe’s in Indian Territory. Another map shows the taken by the southeastern tribes to reach the new lands.
History and Culture: Indian Removal Act - 1830 - …
On you activity sheet, find at least 3 examples of how Jackson “justifies” the Indian Removal Act. Next, explore the general effect of the Indian Removal Act on eastern Native American tribes, as well as the background to the Trail of Tears.
The Indian Removal Act Is on View at the National …
The Indian Removal Act sought to put an end to these conflicts, therefore, by relocating Native American tribes and ensuring states sovereignty over the lands within their boundaries. In a letter to Congress reprinted in The Globe, a Washington D.C. newspaper, President Andrew Jackson justifies the Act saying that it will separate the Indians from immediate contact with settlements of whites;; (and) enable them to pursue happiness in their own way, and under their own crude institutions.' Despite removal being voluntary, however, in saying the Indians have crude institutions' and later in calling them savage tribes,' Jackson's letter shows the latent racism of many American whites. It is this racism and the desire for access to the rich lands occupied by Indian tribes that eventually led to forced removal and events such as the Trail of Tears.'