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In general, instrumentalist conceptions of authority make no specialmention of democracy. The instrumental arguments for democracy givesome reason for why one ought to respect the democracy when onedisagrees with its decisions. But there may be many other instrumentalconsiderations that play a role in deciding on the question of whetherone ought to obey. And these instrumental considerations are prettymuch the same whether one is considering obedience to democracy or someother form of rule.
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One major difficulty with this line of argument is that it appears torequire that the basic rule of decision making be consensus orunanimity. If each person must freely choose the outcomes that bind himor her then those who oppose the decision are not self-governing. Theylive in an environment imposed on them by others. So only when allagree to a decision are they freely adopting the decision.
More recent direct democracy proposals tend to focus on voting schemes (usually high tech) that would allow widespread, virtually continual voting by millions of citizens on whatever proposals surfaced. While useful in building up a buffet of voting methodologies for possible use in other contexts, the lack of organized public deliberation about the issues in question makes such proposals look more like opinion polls than exercises of citizenship. Wise solutions to public problems won't likely come off the top of a hundred million heads.
Democracy - Simple English Wikipedia, the free …
Broadly recognized citizen deliberation and public judgment bring public wisdom to the public power that is bestowed by direct democracy. Such a combination of power and wisdom begins to approach an ideal democratic form. An example of an effort to actually practice this level of advanced democracy is British Columbia's experiment with a , in which 160 randomly selected citizens explored different approaches to electoral reform and the outcome of their deliberations was submitted to British Columbia's electorate for a direct vote.
democracy | Definition of democracy in English by …
Democracies did not originate with the founding of the United States. The term "democracy" comes from two Greek words: "demos" (the people) and ""kratia" (power or authority). So of course is a form of government that gives power to the people. But how, when, and to which people? The answer to those questions changes through history.
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Democracies are based on "rule of law." The (particularly ) valued , the notion that human societies should be governed by ethical principles found in nature. The Greeks are famous for practicing , a system in which citizens meet to discuss all policy, and then make decisions by majority rule. However, only free males were considered to be citizens. So their democracy was certainly limited. Today direct democracy is practiced in New England town meetings, where all citizens of voting age meet to decide important political decisions.
Now, more than ever, our Democracy is under direct threat.
But how could direct democracy work in a large, diverse population spread over a geographical distance? Generally, the answer has been that it can't. In its place, the put "indirect" or "representative" democracy. In this system, are chosen by the people to make decisions for them. The representative body, then, becomes a manageable size for doing the business of government. The Founders preferred the term "" to "democracy" because it described a system they generally preferred: the interests of the peopled were represented by more knowledgeable or wealthier citizens who were responsible to those that elected them. Today we tend to use the terms "republic" and "democracy" interchangeably. A widespread criticism of representative democracy is that the representatives become the "elites" that seldom consult ordinary citizens, so even though they are elected, a truly representative government doesn't really exist.
Most people believe democracy is a uniquely just form of government
Another modern version of democracy is called "," a term made famous by . As the leader of the in 1917, he established a communist government that allowed no private property to exist. All members of society were theoretically equal. However, Lenin considered a small "vanguard of the revolution" necessary to guide the people and establish order. So a small group of leaders make decisions in the name of the people, based on their perceptions of what the people want and need.