China Is Preparing to Launch the World's Biggest …
In settling disputes with its trading partners, China gives consideration to the interests of all parties, and seeks common ground while shelving differences. Since China' s entry into the WTO and with the continuous growth of its imports and exports, the number of trade disputes and frictions between China and its trading partners has increased. These cases mainly involved textile products, shoes, tires, car parts and components, steel and chemical products, and mainly covered the issues of IPR, trade balance, fair trade, food safety, environmental protection and other areas of concern. China has always preferred dialogue to confrontation, and cooperation to pressure, and chooses to settle disputes between trading partners through consultation and negotiation. China adheres to giving consideration to and balancing the interests of all parties and settling disputes through dialogue, consultation and negotiation by utilizing bilateral and multilateral channels and following the rules and under the framework of the WTO. In recent years China has adopted various measures to further open up its market, protect IPR, promote trade balance, reform the exchange rate formation mechanism of the RMB and standardize the operational order of imports and exports, among other areas, fully taking into account the concerns of its trading partners. When consultations fail to settle a dispute, China appropriately handles the issue with its trading partners through the WTO dispute settlement mechanism, in order to maintain the stability of the multilateral trading system.
China - Pollution - Environment - The New York Times
At present, unbalanced, inconsistent and unsustainable development factors persist in China's foreign trade. They are manifested in the following ways: Export growth mainly relies on the input and consumption of resources, energy, land, manpower, environment, etc., while the input of science and technology, management, innovation and other factors are insufficient, resulting in an ever more conspicuous contradiction between foreign trade development and the constraint on resource supply and environmental carrying capacity; enterprises are not competitive enough in R&D, design, marketing and services, and products with their own intellectual property rights and with their own brands account for only a small proportion of the exports; the contribution of foreign trade to China's primary, secondary and tertiary industries is unbalanced; central and western China falls behind other regions in the scale and level of foreign trade; and foreign trade needs improvement in terms of the quality of its products and profits. The Chinese government is clearly aware of these problems and has taken active measures to accelerate the change of the development pattern of foreign trade, and achieve sustainable development.
Conducting and co-ordinating research spanning diverse environments
The increasing diversity of the sociocultural and economic environment in which research is being conducted, impliesthat international marketing researchers will need to develop the capability to conduct and co-ordinate researchspanning a brand range of environmental contexts and research questions. In essence, researchers will need to beable to tailor research questions, and adapt research instruments and administration procedures to different environments,as well as to interpret or generalize results at a pan-cultural or global level. This goes beyond geographic co-ordinationof multi-country studies, translation and development of multilingual questionnaires or research instruments, andrequires skills in designing multi-site studies that include a common core and purpose, while at the same timeaddressing country-specific issues (Douglas and Craig, 1997).
At a first level, skills in designing multi-site studies in diverse environmentswill increasingly be required. Here, although the key research questions are clearly identified and common acrosssites, attention needs to be paid to how constructs are operationalized, research instruments designed, and samplingand data collection conducted at each site. The definition of product categories may, for example, differ as wellas brand availability, the nature of the retail environment, or more insidiously, the socio-cultural context ofconsumption. Constructs or definitions used in one context are not necessarily appropriate in another. Researchinstruments, data collection or sampling procedures may incorporate bias, requiring reformulation or adaptationto ensure meaningful results (Craig and Douglas, 2000).
Use of a team incorporating members from different cultural backgrounds andsites helps to strike a balance between the need for local input and adaptation to local site conditions with theneed for comparability and equivalence across sites. Researchers from each site should participate in the earlystages of research design and in the interpretation of data and results, rather than merely acting as local implementersof a centrally designed study. They can then provide input in the formulation of research questions and the designof the research instrument as well as in sampling and data collection procedures. Equally, local researchers arebest placed to interpret findings from their sites in terms of local contextual factors, and to explain local anomaliesor differences.
At a higher or "supra-country" level, skills and capabilities indesigning and managing a research program which spans multiple, diverse environments are likely to become increasinglycritical. A research program might, for example, cover a product business or industry worldwide. If the productbusiness is at different stages of the product life-cycle in different regions or market conditions differ substantially,as, for example, detergents, different types of research or information will need to be collected. Ability to definerelevant research issues in each context, and to coordinate and manage the different studies, will be criticalto provide meaningful input for the development of the firm�s long-run strategy in world markets.