Thus, Gregory VII made Henry IV wait barefooted at his gate.

Paul did not expect the Antichrist as a prose fact to take his seat in that edifice.

Thus, Alexander III trod upon the neck of Alexander I.

The frontiers were secure, orthodoxy was established, the Visigoths were pacified, and Theodosius, doubtlessly with a mind at peace (he had even patched up a nasty excommunication by St.

Thus, Celestin kicked off the imperial crown of Henry VI.

Ambrose, Bishop of Milan [not Rome, notice]), left the Empire to his young sons, Honorius and Arcadius, under the protection of his trusted, and in fact trustworthy, commander, Stilicho.

The meaning of this will be considered in turn; but first, it must be asked: "Well, OK, the Empire of Diocletian and Constantine has a natural transition to the collapse under the miserable emperor Phocas in 602-610, but can the collapse of the western Empire be so easily dismissed?


It is defended, however, by Matthaei, Koppe, Knapp, and Schott.

To be sure, it may be too much to regard the Ottoman Empire as a version of the Roman Empire, but Bâyezîd as the Sultân of Rûm was claiming to be a kind of successor, and the Ottoman state did encompass all the lands of Mediaeval Romania, from its own capital at Constantinople.

In the temple at Jerusalem, God himself presided.

Germans in a German tribe remained German; and as the Roman army assimilated itself to the influence of the German model, it lost its advantage of discipline over its German enemies.

The reign of the "man of sin" would be as if he should sit there.

Stilicho could have swept aside the intrigue, organized his resources, and annihilated the tribal Visigoths through one simple act: seizing the throne.

He would claim divine attributes and homage.

In seizing the throne, Stilicho would have lost legitimacy with the East, but by not seizing the throne, Stilicho and his successors passed on after them weak civilian governments, often with young, jealous emperors and scheming regents, at a time when the ferocity of third century warrior emperors was badly needed again.

He would give laws and responses as God did there.

That survived until the last Sult.ân was deposed in 1922, and Constantinople ceased being a capital, and a home for Emperors (), for the first time since Constantine.

Orosius’ is available in Latin at

In 410, only fifteen years after the death of Theodosius, the western empire had become all but paralyzed, with the Goths in Rome itself, the Vandals, Alans, the Suevi rampaging across Gaul and Spain, and Britain stripped of troups by the usurper Constantine, who moved into Gaul.

Marcellinus comes, the (Latin only).

What may have been personal loyalty to the Throne in Stilicho obviously becomes something else later: the commander , who presided over a critical era in the dissolution of the western Empire, 456-472, made two or three emperors himself, briefly accepted a candidate from the east (Anthemius, 467-472), and through the whole business did not do what now seems like the obvious: He did not get his own army to elevate him to the Purple.