Scholarships for Developing Countries Students, 2018 …
There is no consensus on the lack of a strong positive relationship between educational resources and performance, however. In the within-country literature, some scholars have questioned the use of meta-analyses, while others have suggested the use of alternative measures of school performance, such as students’ future labor-market performance. Still others point to controlled and quasi-controlled empirical experiments that have shown that more resources can lead to higher achievement. Notwithstanding this debate, the international variation in student performance levels in mathematics and science is a fact, and it is generally accepted that differences in the amount of resources given to the education sector do not fully explain why performance levels vary.
Scholarships for Developing Countries, 2018-2019
Competition from private schools. The level of competition that public schools face from private schools is another important institutional feature. The existence of more private schools gives parents who want to raise their children’s achievement the opportunity to choose whether to send them to a particular private school or to a public school. Because the loss of students to private schools may have negative repercussions for the heads of public schools, increased competition from private schools should have a positive effect on the efficiency of resource use in the public schools. The existence of private schools should also increase a country’s overall achievement level. The heads of private schools have clear monetary incentives to use resources in ways that maximize student performance–thereby giving more parents reasons to choose their schools. Therefore, the more privately managed educational institutions there are in a nation, the higher student performance should be.
Centralized exams. Of the 39 countries in this study, 15 have some kind of centralized exams, in the sense that an administrative body beyond the schooling level writes and administers the exams to all students. This can profoundly alter the incentive structure within the educational system by measuring student performance against an external standard, making performance comparable across classes and schools. It makes it easier to tell whether a given student’s poor performance is an exception within a class or whether the whole class is doing poorly relative to the country as a whole. In other words, centralized exams make it obvious whether it is the student or the teacher who is to blame. This reduces the teachers’ leeway and creates incentives to use resources more effectively. It makes the whole system transparent: parents can assess the performance of children, teachers, and schools; heads of schools can assess the performance of teachers; and the government and administration can assess the performance of different schools.
Can developing countries afford the SDGs? - Devpolicy …
In the K-12 education market, where countries the world over publicly finance and manage the great majority of their schools, the institutions and policies established by various levels of government must create incentives for school personnel to use their resources in ways that maximize performance. In the private sector, where firms are disciplined by market competition, it is usually assumed that resources are used effectively because firms would otherwise fail to profit. Inefficiency leads to higher costs and higher prices–practically an invitation to competitors to lure away customers. But the relative lack of competition in the K-12 education sector tends to dull the incentives to improve quality and restrain costs. Moreover, in the public system, the ability of parents and students to ensure that they receive a high-quality education is constrained by the enormous obstacles to leaving a bad school. Families must rely almost exclusively on the government, school administrators, and school personnel to monitor one another’s behavior and to create appropriate quality-control measures.
Automation is set to hit workers in developing countries hard
This study uses data from 39 countries to analyze how various institutions affect educational performance at the student level. I constructed a student-level database that combines data from TIMSS with data on education systems from the OECD. TIMSS is the latest, largest, and most extensive international student achievement test ever conducted. In 1994-95, representative samples of students in more than 40 countries were tested (for various reasons, data files were available for only 39 countries for this study). Countries participating in the study were required to administer tests to students in the middle-school years, but could choose whether or not to participate in the primary and final school years. This paper focuses on the middle-school years, where students enrolled in the two adjacent grades containing the largest proportion of 13-year-old students (7th- and 8th-graders in most countries) were tested. This data set includes data on more than 250,000 individual students, who form a representative sample of a population of more than 30 million students in the 39 countries.