by Ross Harrison (Oxford, 2001);J.

We are therefore perpetually vulnerable to the possibility of conflicting moral obligations.

Schneewind, (Oxford, 1977); and, ed.

In (1874) and (1886),Sidgwick surveyed the varieties of argument that may be applied to moral judgments, including common-sense, calculation of , and a normative theory.

by Bart Schultz (Cambridge, 1992).

Recommended Reading:Tony Dodd, (Edwin Mellen, 1998).

Smith's (1776)proposed the economic theory that social goods are maximized when individual human beings are permitted to pursue their own interests, restricted only by the most general principles of .

Hence, what anything is when considered absolutely or without qualification.

He is most widely admired for (1975), in which Singer shows that, since a difference of species entails no moral distinction between sentient beings, it is wrong to mistreat non-human animals; it follows that animal experimentation and the eating of animal flesh are morally indefensible.

In , Singer argues for the moral relevance of animal pain.