American Women Still Face Problems, Limitations

Benefits to artists + what makes TIDAL unique
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Benefits to artists + what makes TIDAL ..

If you are looking for a lively slice of life, Boordy offers a year-round calendar of and events around Maryland. There are open air festivals in the spring and fall and big band music for dancing under the stars all summer. Winter wine and food pairings and a community oriented "Good Life Thursday" farmer's market featuring local musicians give you many ways to enjoy wine with friends.

but also the ability to participate in unique real life ..
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The Dark Side of the Recent Polyglot Hype | Psychology Today

October 1891-April 1905 April 1905-February 1913 February 1913-today Auditorium Theater and Orchestra Hall: The Homes of the Chicago Symphony The first concert of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra (or Chicago Orchestra as it was then called), took place in the Auditorium Theater of Chicago on October 17, 1891. Ferdinand Peck, a Chicago businessman, conceived of the Auditorium as a venue for grand opera which would rival the leading halls of the world. He organized Chicago leaders in 1886 to finance the Auditorium Theater, which was to include a 400 room hotel and an office building with the objective that it would be financially self-supporting. The resulting Auditorium Theater was a new and architecturally distinguished building, designed by famed Chicago architect Louis Sullivan, and finished in December, 1889. 211 left: 1889 Chicago Auditorium Theater --- right 1904 Symphony Hall, Chicago (Theodore Thomas Hall) The resulting concert hall had excellent acoustics, comfort, and facilities, but for a symphony orchestra, it was far too large. Seating was for 4,300, twice the size best suited for a symphony orchestra, and the interior was vast. Theodore Thomas felt: " was so big that to fill it with sound, he was obliged to employ a stress that obliterated the finer points..." 210 With Theodore Thomas's constant pressure, and his conviction that the orchestra must have a home of its own, monies were raised in 1903 and 1904, the hall designed by Chicago architect Daniel Burnham, and construction began on May 1, 1904. Only 7 months later, Theodore Thomas was able to lead the first concert in what was later named "Theodore Thomas Hall" on December 14, 1904. Chicago Symphony Orchestra Music Directors 1891-1905 Theodore Thomas (Christian Friedrich Theodore Thomas) 38 Theodore Thomas in his autobiography 37 states he was born October 11, 1835 in "Esens, East Friesland by the North Sea ", which is the extreme north of Germany near the Dutch boarder. His father, Johann August Thomas (about 1799-about 1860) was "Stadtpfeifer ", or "town musician" of Esens and a violinist. Theodore Thomas learned the violin under his father beginning at about age 5. The Thomas family emigrated to the U.S., arriving July 1, 1846, when Theodore was age 10. Working as a musician in New York, in 1848 Johann Thomas entered a marine band in Norfolk, Virginia, with Theodore also engaged as a horn player 81. After traveling as an itinerant musician in the South, in 1850, Thomas returned to New York City and for the next decade, he played in many theater and music hall orchestras. In this era, it was apparently usual for there to be a constant turnover of groups and musicians within groups. In January, 1854, age 19, Thomas was elected a violinist musician of the New York Philharmonic Society, but given the few Philharmonic concerts, Thomas (like musicians for the next 100 years) played in a variety of other groups to earn a living. At this time, he first performed in string quartets 39 and joined the chamber music society. These same players also performed in the various orchestras and opera groups, including Ullmann's Opera Company, where Thomas was Concertmaster. It was with the Ullmann Opera group that Thomas had his first conducting experiences. And in 1853-1854, Thomas played first violin in the Louis Antoine Jullien orchestra as it toured the eastern US. In his autobiography, Theodore Thomas wrote: "…In 1862, I concluded to devote my energies to the cultivation of the public taste for instrumental music…" 82. In fact, he devoted himself to this objective for the remainder of his career. He organized his Theodore Thomas Orchestra, with which he gave more than 100 concerts in each of the summers of 1866 and 1867 83. Between the winter concerts and the more successful summer "music garden" type concerts of the , Thomas broke-even financially, and built a following. 84. However, even New York in that era did not have a musical life sufficient for full-time employment. Consequently, in 1868-1869, Thomas took his orchestra on tour to cities in the eastern US, in later seasons expanding as far west as Chicago. In this, Thomas demonstrated an energy, and business sense sufficient to keep his orchestra employed and solvent. However, he personally guaranteed all orchestra expenses, and he lost greatly from cancelled concerts, for example, following the 1871 Chicago fire. At the summer concerts of 1872, Thomas and his orchestra gave what he said was the US premiere of the from Act 3 of (which had been premiered in 1870)86. Closing the 1873 season, Thomas and the orchestra were joined in New York by the Handel & Haydn Society of Boston to perform the Beethoven Symphony no 9. In May, 1873, Thomas and his orchestra took part in the first of the famous Cincinnati May Festivals. Thomas continued conducting the Cincinnati May Festival concerts from 1873-1904 (he was succeeded by Frank Van der Stucken after Thomas's death in 1905 98). Cincinnati Music Hall, home of the Cincinnati May Festival These years of the 1870s were an important contribution by Theodore Thomas to the education of the US in the greats works of the symphonic repertoire, previously unknown to most people, even in major cities. His and his orchestra, constant traveling across the eastern US was the way he could keep the orchestra employed and solvent, since he had no subsidy. Theodore Thomas was appointed conductor of the New York Philharmonic Society in the 1877-1878 season, but the next year decided to take over direction of the Cincinnati College of Music. However, this Cincinnati engagement did not work out. Thomas then returned to New York as conductor of the Philharmonic, which he continued for a further twelve seasons 1879-1891. Another long-term Thomas conducting responsibility was of the Brooklyn Philharmonic Society 1862-1891. In 1891, a group of Chicago businessmen invited Theodore Thomas to direct a permanent symphony orchestra to be called the "Chicago Orchestra". Thomas accepted, and the Orchestra was ready for its first concert on October 16, 1891. The support for Thomas and the orchestra grew until by the 1903-1904 season, Thomas campaigned for a permanent hall for the Orchestra 85. The money raised, the concert hall was designed by Daniel Burnham (1846-1912). Meanwhile, beginning in about 1902, Theodore Thomas's health began to deteriorate 85. His wife, Rose Emily Fay wrote: "…All through the summer of 1904 he was rapidly breaking down… both heart and nerves were in bad condition…" 85. By mid-December 1904, Orchestra Hall, Chicago was sufficiently complete that Theodore Thomas was able to conduct his concerts there beginning December 14, 1904. However, Theodore Thomas did not survive long thereafter, and died on January 5, 1905, following a brief illness which may have developed into pneumonia. Following his passing, in Thomas's honor, the Chicago Orchestra was renamed the "Theodore Thomas Orchestra". Perhaps it is not exaggerated to say that no other musician did more than Theodore Thomas to cultivate the seeds of US appreciation of symphonic music from 1850 until 1900, from a time when there were almost no symphonic groups in the US, until a flowering of orchestras, including Theodore Thomas' Chicago symphony. Jullien the Flamboyant Conductor The mini-biography above describes a young Theodore Thomas playing for showman conductor Louis Antoine Jullien during his in 1853-1854, US tour. Actually, Jullien was also famous for his very long name. This apparently came from his father's generosity when he was playing violin with an orchestra in Aix-en-Provence, France. He said that he would invite one of the orchestra musicians to baptize his son. However, since all the musicians vied for this honor, all 36 musician's names were used in the baptism of "Louis George Maurice Adolphe Roche Albert Abel Antonio Alexandre Noë Jean Lucien Daniel Eugène Joseph-le-brun Joseph-Barême..." (but this website has limits of storage memory).

The Dark Side of the Recent Polyglot Hype
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Paul Olefsky was born in Chicago on January 4, 1926. His father, Maxim, born in Russia, was also an orchestra musician and a pianist. Maxim Olefsky (1899-1989) conducted the radio orchestras of NBC and ABC in Chicago 78. Paul Olefsky studied at the Curtis Institute with Gregor Piatigorsky (1903-1976). Olefsky graduated from Curtis in 1947. In 1948, at age 22, Paul Olefsky became the youngest Principal cellist in the history of the Philadelphia Orchestra up to that time. During the 1950-1951 season, in December, 1950, Paul Olefsky left the Philadelphia Orchestra to play in the US Navy band during the Korean War 76. Following this service, Paul Olefsky became Principal cellist in the newly reorganized Detroit Symphony under Paul Paray. In June 1953 at the Michael Memorial Music Competition in Chicago, cellist Paul Olefsky won first place, with Van Cliburn placing second 79. This was a competition, no longer active, for various instruments, rather than for piano or for strings. By 1954, Paul Olefsky was back in Detroit as Principal cello, serving with Detroit Concertmaster Mischa Mischakoff. In 1956, as noted above, Paul Olefsky is listed as being 'Principal cello' in the Chicago Symphony roster 1. Whether he served in Chicago or not, by February, 1957, Paul Olefsky was listed in reviews as 'Principal cello of the Detroit Symphony' 77. Paul Olefsky in Detroit 1958 After the Detroit Symphony, Paul Olefsky seems to have left orchestral life. He taught in New York at the Julliard School. During the 1960s and 1970s, Olefsky's performing career as a cellist was primarily devoted to chamber music. At this time, Paul Olefsky was also active in conducting, which he had done previously on several occasions throughout his career. Later, Olefsky became Professor of Music at the University of Texas, Austin, from which he has now retired. In 1989, Paul Olefsky married the cellist Hai Zheng. 1958-1959 Mihaly Virizlay Mihaly Virizlay was born on November 2, 1931 in Budapest, Hungary. After his early studies, Mihaly Virizlay or "Misi" gained admission to the Franz Liszt Academy in Budapest. There he studied with, among others an also young . At the Franz Liszt Academy, Mihaly Virizlay gained his Artist's Diploma in 1955. The next year, Mihaly Virizlay left Hungary in 1956, following the Soviet invasion of Budapest. Fritz Reiner appointed Mihaly Virizlay Principal cello of the Chicago Symphony in the 1958-1959 season. Among Chicago recordings with Reiner, Virizlay may be heard in particular in the long cello solo in the recorded for RCA Victor LSC-2318 on November 22, 1958. After Chicago, Mihaly Virizlay was appointed Associate Principal cello of the Pittsburgh Symphony sitting with Principal cello Theo Salzman (1907-1982), under Music Director William Steinberg. Mihaly Virizlay also toured with his pianist wife Agi Rado in a cello-piano duo 105. Mihaly Virizlay was named Principal cello of the Baltimore Symphony in the 1962-1963 season. He suffered a stroke in 2002 after the conclusion of a Baltimore Symphony concert 106, but he continued to perform with the orchestra, serving a total of 42 seasons, 1962- 2004. Mihaly Virizlay was also a composer and he premiered his with David Zinman and the Baltimore Symphony 1987. While in Baltimore, beginning in 1964 Mihaly Virizlay taught at the Peabody Conservatory, and is fondly remembered by his many students. Mihaly Virizlay also taught during summers at the Shawnigan Lake School in British Columbia. Mihaly Virizlay died in Princeton, New Jersey on October 13, 2008. 1959-1960, 1961-1985 Frank Miller Frank Miller in 1947 Frank Miller born in Baltimore, Maryland on March 5, 1912. After study in Baltimore, Frank Miller gained admission to the Curtis Institute, studying with the great Felix Salmond (1888-1952). Miller graduated from Curtis in the Class of 1933. Leopold Stokowski, as was sometimes his practice in the early 1930s selected Frank Miller to play in the Philadelphia Orchestra even prior to his graduation, playing in cello section in the 1930-1931 season. Frank Miller remained in the Philadelphia Orchestra for five seasons 1930-1935. In Philadelphia, Eugene Ormandy in his last season in Minneapolis prior to coming to the Philadelphia Orchestra heard Frank Miller. Ormandy selected him to be the Minneapolis Symphony Principal cello in the 1935-1936 season, where he stayed for two years. Then, in 1938, Frank Miller was selected, first probably by Artur Rodzinski and then auditioned by Arturo Toscanini, to become Principal cello of the newly-formed NBC Symphony. Frank Miller was Arturo Toscanini's Principal cello for fifteen seasons 1938-1953. When Toscanini retired from the NBC Symphony, Frank Miller turned to conducting, becoming the Music Director of the Florida Symphony in Orlando 1954-1959. He had previously conducted concerts of the Minneapolis Symphony. In the 1959-1960 season, following the departure of Janos Starker, Fritz Reiner selected Miller to be Principal cello of the Chicago Symphony. Frank Miller took a year's sabbatical from Chicago to become Associate Conductor again with the Minneapolis Symphony. Miller then returned to the Chicago Symphony as Principal cello under an ailing Fritz Reiner in the 1961-1962 season. In that same 1961-1962 season, Frank Miller was appointed Music Director of the Evanston Symphony located in a Chicago suburb. Frank Miller remained Principal cello of the Chicago Symphony for a total of twenty-five seasons under Jean Martinon and Georg Solti, retiring at the end of the 1984-1985 season. Also in chamber music, Frank Miller led the Chicago Symphony String Quartet for 35 years: first, second, viola, cello. Frank Miller's affections for the works of Gilbert and Sullivan was expressed through his direction of the in suburban Chicago. Frank Miller died outside Chicago in Skokie, Illinois on January 6, 1986 after more than fifty years as Principal cello of several famous orchestras, and his parallel career in conducting.

without picking up on the limitations and inconsistencies
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