Depression has always been a health problem for human beings

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Self-esteem is part of the habitual core of the individual and as suchis integral to the personality structure. Indeed, low self-esteem conceivedas a trait is a major defining attribute of the depressive (melancholic)personality. While it is understandable how such individuals can easily sinkinto melancholia in the face of environmental adversity, it is not obviouswhy persons with apparently high self-esteem, such as those with hypomanicand narcissistic personalities, also succumb to melancholy with relativeease. To explain such cases, one must invoke an underlying instability inthe system of self-esteem that renders it vulnerable to depression. The oppositeis also known to occur; that is, manic episodes may develop from a baselineof low self-esteem, as sometimes occurs in patients with dysthymic disorder.

Major depressive disorder - Wikipedia

Since ancient times, persons prone to mania and melancholia have beendescribed as possessing certain temperamental attributes, representing variationson the theme of what today is subsumed under cyclothymia and dysthymia. Thefact that many monozygotic twins discordant for mood disorders studied byAksel Bertelsen's Danish research team exhibited affective instability alongsuch temperamental lines strongly suggests that such attributes representgenetically determined traits. That research and research conducted by Kendlerand associates suggest that many of the temperamental attributes might betransmitted as part of the overall genetic liability to mood disorders. Theauthor's research has identified those temperaments in the prepubertal offspringof parents with bipolar (manic-depressive) disorders, suggesting that theyprecede by years to decades the onset of major mood disorder episodes. Thosetemperaments in turn generate much interpersonal friction, emotional arousal,and sleep loss, and thereby might give rise to many of the life stressorsthat precipitate episodes of mood disorders. The use of stimulant drugs--eitherto self-treat lethargy or enhance hypomanic episodes--can also precipitatesuch episodes.

Meyer's terminological revision left a somewhat confusing legacy inthat the term "depression" is now applied to a broad range of affective phenomena ranging from sadness and adjustment disorders to clinical depressive disorders and bipolar disorders. Repercussions can be seen inthe low threshold for diagnosing major depressive disorder in DSM-IV, whichrenders difficult the differentiation of major depressive disorder from transientlife stresses that produce adjustment disorder withdepressed mood. Nosological nuances to which Meyerians paid little attention,such as the difference between melancholic depression and more mundane depressions,are not just a matter of semantics. To the extent that those two forms ofdepression are seen in different clinical settings, hypotheses based on onepopulation may not apply to the other. For instance, study subjects may havelearned, as a consequence of uncontrollable traumatic events in their biography,to feel helpless or to view the world in a negative light, but that doesnot equate with clinical illness. Failure to make such nosological distinctionsfurther clouds interpretations of the results of trials of psychotherapyversus pharmacotherapy for depressive disorders.


Against Nature – Huysmans « Oscar Wilde and the …

For LaCapra, one of the great challenges of postmodern andpoststructuralist readings of the trauma inflicted by the Shoah would be to reflect on the ways in which theythemselves participate in a melancholic reaction to the event.One of the ways in which a culture betrays (in the sense of "allows to becomeclear") its own "investments" or , to use Freud's term forthe psychic endowment of certain things, is in its priveleging specific waysof thinking and writing, certain forms of presentation, the selection of specific genres as being"apt" or "appropriate" for certain tasks.

Posts about Against Nature – Huysmans written by litilluminations

This is the thesis of Eric Santner's .In much of what has been written about the Holocaust in recent years, one cannotice a tendency to discuss the Holocaust and the responses to it in termsborrowed from the description of Melancholia.

Zi Wei Dou Shu (紫微斗數) | As Above So Below 天羅地 …

A comic book within the comic book entitled "Prisoner on the Hell Planet: ACase History," this text-within-the-text recounts Artie's own incomplete or failed attempt to work through the trauamatic loss of his mother, his ownmelancholic and masochistic tendencies to internalize the dysfunction of hisfamily and his mother's depression, and the degree to which his writingbears the mark of that loss and is itself a type of working-through inits own right.