Beginners Guide to Marxism by Marxists Internet …

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Marx for Beginners by Rius - Goodreads

The following circuit uses the flasher circuit to drive a complementaryoutput stage and step-up audio transformer. This circuit is used in a high voltagebreakdown tester but it would be useful for a variety of applications.

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The transformer may be an audio type connected for step-up or step-down depending uponthe desired output voltage. An old tube radio output transformer with the speaker windingconnected to the circuit gave about 250 VRMS on the secondary and the voltagemultiplier may be extended to reach thousands of volts DC.

Here is a low battery indicator that flashes a lamp when the batteryvoltage falls below about 5 volts. The circuit draws about 25 microamps when not flashingso battery life is not significantly shortened by the circuit. The two 1 megohm resistorsset the switching point at V/2 (plus a little due to the emitter-base diode drop) and whenthis voltage is above the zener voltage the circuit cannot turn on. When the batteryvoltage drops below 5 volts, the base voltage drops to 2.5 volts and the emitter can reacha voltage sufficient to turn on the PNP (2N4403 or similar). When the PNP conducts, theNPN also conducts dropping the voltage across the circuit even more and the circuit snapson. When the 4.7 uF capacitor has discharged, the circuit turns off and the capacitorbegins charging again.


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Requiring a few more parts, this low voltage flasher uses ordinary silicon transistors and is poweredby two cells. The circuit will work down to about 1.6 volts.

Marx for Beginners - Internet Archive

The basic flasher is shown below. Notice that it is a "two-wire"circuit and simply connects in series with the load and battery. The two resistors on thebase of the PNP set a threshold voltage and when power is applied the capacitor beginscharging toward this voltage. When the capacitor voltage is high enough the twotransistors begin to conduct. The current flow causes the voltage across the circuit todrop slightly and this drop causes a drop in the threshold voltage. The lower thresholdvoltage causes even more current and this positive feedback causes the circuit to rapidlyturn on. It stays on until the capacitor discharges at which point a reverse processcauses the circuit to suddenly switch off.

Marx for Beginners Summary & Study Guide - …

As the large capacitor charges, the surge suppressors will dimly flickerwith a blue light. In case you are wondering, ordinary neon lamps will also work but youwill only get about 25 volts per bulb; it is hard to beat these suppressors. Notice thatthe Marx generator uses only one capacitor per stage instead of two as with theCockcroft-Walton multiplier. Other values may be used in just about every case. Anotherprototype used .01 uF capacitors instead of 5000 pF, 100k instead of 1 meg and 1meg inplace of the 3 meg so don't hesitate to experiment with what is on hand. This circuit canshock the begeebers out of you even when it is off so keepa your hands off!

Marx Brothers for Beginners - The Marx Brothers

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The basic two-transistor flasher shown below has found its way into dozensof applications due to its simplicity and versatility. Applications have included suchdiverse circuits as a micropower low battery indicator, a , aoff-line switching power supply, a ,an unusual beeping , a , a , , and several others. The simple circuitcan be used at very low frequencies, RF frequencies, low voltages, or even very highvoltages with careful selection of transistors. The power handling capability and powerconsumption are also easily modified to suit the requirement.