Moral Relativism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Moral Realism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Moral Instinct - New York Times

In all men's acts, and in those of princes most especially, it is the result that renders the verdict when there is no court of appeal., [Daniel Donno translation, Bantam Books, 1981, p.64; Italian text, , Giulio Einaudi editore s.p.a., Torino, 2013 e 2014, p.127]Note that a distinction can be made between dilemmas, whose terms are based on natural or rational principles of morality or justice, and dilemmas, whose terms may involve contractual or legal principles germane to the artificial or constructed situations of certain professions (with their own "ethics") or kinds of transactions.

Some Moral Dilemmas - Friesian School

NRx vs AltRight: What now? | Poseidon Awoke: Realist

Late in his life Hume deemed the Enquiry concerning the Principlesof Morals his best work, and in style it is a model of eleganceand subtlety. His method in that work differs from that of theTreatise: instead of explicating the nature of virtue and viceand our knowledge of them in terms of underlying features of the humanmind, he proposes to collect all the traits we know from common senseto be virtues and vices, observe what those in each group have incommon, and from that observation discover the “foundation ofethics” (EPM 1.10). The conclusions largely coincide with thoseof the Treatise. Some topics in the Treatise arehandled more fully in the moral Enquiry; for example Hume'saccount of the motive to just action is enriched by his discussionof a challenge from a “sensible knave.” However, withoutthe detailed background theories of the mind, the passions, motivationto action, and social convention presented in the Treatise,and without any substitute for them, some of the conclusions of themoral Enquiry stand unsupported.

First, the Humanity Formula does not rule out using people as means toour ends. Clearly this would be an absurd demand, since we apparentlydo this all the time in morally appropriate ways. Indeed, it is hardto imagine any life that is recognizably human without the use ofothers in pursuit of our goals. The food we eat, the clothes we wear,the chairs we sit on and the computers we type at are gotten only byway of talents and abilities that have been developed through theexercise of the wills of many people. What the Humanity Formula rulesout is engaging in this pervasive use of humanity in such a way thatwe treat it as a mere means to our ends. Thus, the differencebetween a horse and a taxi driver is not that we may use one but notthe other as a means of transportation. Unlike a horse, the taxidriver’s humanity must at the same time be treated as an end initself.

The “Moral Licensing” effect | N E W S • F R A M E S

For Pope John Paul, as for Pope John, peace must be built on principles, especially those four pillars identified in Pacem in Terris: truth, justice, love and freedom. The Pope’s contribution to the ending of the European communist totalitarian regimes arises not simply from his concrete moral support to the reform movement in his native Poland but above all from his recognition of the fact that the political systems in those individual countries and the geopolitical structures that emerged after Yalta constituted a lie, they did not correspond to the truth. Peace can only be built on truth.

Professor Frank Pajares: Web Site Redirect

Although I had a lot of objections to Grassian's book, I did like its structure, which featured dilemmas, historical theories in ethics, and then selected moral problems.


So when someone makes a moral judgement they show their feelings about something. Some theorists also suggest that in expressing a feeling the person gives an instruction to others about how to act towards the subject matter.

Vice definition, an immoral or evil habit or practice. See more.

A related but more metaphysical controversy would be stated thustoday: what is the source or foundation of moral norms? In Hume's daythis is the question what is the ground of moral obligation (asdistinct from what is the faculty for acquiring moral knowledge orbelief). Moral rationalists of the period such as Clarke (and in somemoods, Hobbes and Locke) argue that moral standards or principles arerequirements of reason — that is, that the very rationality ofright actions is the ground of our obligation to perform them. Divinevoluntarists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries such as SamuelPufendorf claim that moral obligation or requirement, if not every sortof moral standard, is the product of God's will. The moral sensetheorists (Shaftesbury and Hutcheson) and Butler see all requirementsto pursue goodness and avoid evil as consequent upon human nature,which is so structured that a particular feature of our consciousness(whether moral sense or conscience) evaluates the rest. Hume sides withthe moral sense theorists on this question: it is because we are thekinds of creatures we are, with the dispositions we have for pain andpleasure, the kinds of familial and friendly interdependence that makeup our life together, and our approvals and disapprovals of these, thatwe are bound by moral requirements at all.