The Directory : French revolution - Napoleon

Napoleon Bonaparte : Napoleon : Bonaparte : …

In her Vindication of the Rights of Man,  defended the French Revolution against Burke's attacks.

Napoleon Bonaparte Biography - Biography

France’s own revolution must be addressed when examining the course of emancipation in Saint Domingue. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen sparked conversations about whether free men of color were privy to the same rights as free white men. Vincent Oge, a prominent leader of the Society of the Friends of Blacks in France, incited a revolt through mobilizing the gens de couleur. Although the revolt was quickly put down the conversation could not be quenched; did the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen apply to free men in Saint Domingue, a French colony?

The French Revolution - The Age of Napoleon - …

Emancipation in Saint Domingue was not a simple, or even consistent, process. Throughout the tumultuous Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) promises of emancipation were offered from numerous angles. Haitians were considered a valuable ally from a colonial perspective as the British, French, and Spanish all tried to increase their influence in the Caribbean. Toussaint L’ouverture and Andre Rigaud, among other leaders, were forced to consider multiple offers of emancipation. Ultimately, the path to emancipation proved more difficult than any could have imagined.

During the early years of the Revolution, there was a lot of talk about education, but relatively little institutional action. Many reports were issued, and some changes were made, but the internal turmoil and external conflict made domestic reform difficult. With the execution of Robespierre on July 28, 1794, some level of normalcy was established, and the government was able to pay more attention to educational reform. Action soon followed with the decree that teacher training was now the top educational priority. The Paris Normal school was created with a curriculum that included "republican morality and the public and private virtues, as well as the techniques of teaching reading, writing, arithmetic, practical geometry, French history and grammar;" and they were to use books which would be published and prescribed by the Convention. This latter requirement merely reflects what had by that time become a strong French tradition, namely the extreme centralization of educational policy. Also instituted at this time was the establishment of a public secondary school for every 300,000 people. The curriculum for these consisted of literature, languages, science, and the arts. The decree establishing the also provided that


Napoleon: Son of the French Revolution | …

The period of the French Revolution (1789-1799) is not noted for its stability, either of policy or of government, and it may be a surprise to the average reader that this period dealt with education at all. While most literature concentrates on the activities surrounding foreign policy and internal conflicts, the fact is that the leaders of the Revolution were very concerned with education. This was seen early in the Revolutionary period, in the that had been requested by Louis XVI. These consisted of grievances and/or suggestions for improvement. While the of the third estate (workers and peasants) seldom mentioned education, those of the first and second estates (clergy, nobility) often called for improvements in the educational system. Later, in 1793, the Convention established the Committee of Public Instruction, and charged it with reordering education in France. It is not surprising that the destructive tendencies of the other components of the Revolution were carried out in education as well. That which existed had to go, simply because it had existed before the Revolution.

First Consul - Napoleon and the French Revolution - …

In this unit, we will examine the problems causing the fall of the Old Regime and follow the French Revolution through its liberal, radical, and Napoleonic phases.

The French Revolution and Napoleon - ActiveHistory

In the years immediately prior to the French Revolution, the idea of universal education was beginning to develop. Cardinal Richelieu, the power behind Louis XIII (ruled 1610 to 1643), and later Rolland advocated the principle that "each one ought to have within his reach the education for which he is best fitted." But, for all the talk, it could be argued that the involvement of the French government was less than overwhelming, and education was largely left to the Catholic Church. As Farrington suggests, "The time was not then ripe, however, for accomplishing these reforms. It needed the drastic purgation of the Revolutionary period, followed by the constructive genius of Napoleon, to put them into effect."

The French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte (1780 …

Toussaint remained committed to full abolition of slavery. Following this paradigm he adopted the language of the French Revolution, specifically in striving for Liberty and Equality within Saint Domingue. When word came that the French had officially decreed emancipation, and it was not merely a ruse by Sonthonax, Toussaint and his followers were quick to switch allegiance to the French.