What are some facts about ancient Mesopotamia
Even the settlement patterns in Bronze and Iron Age Luristan, whether sedentary or wholly or partially nomadic, are unknown. Presumably the complex economic and technical structures embodied in the flourishing Iron Age bronze industry would argue for a partly sedentary population (Frye, pp. 59f.), but without texts scholars are not in a position to explore the dynamics of manufacturing: how copper and tin were obtained and how payments, transport, design, and production were organized. Furthermore, without excavated settlements there is no evidence bearing on distribution and administrative centers, so that no focused perception of a political system or systems is possible. If gold and silver were used in the economy, they do not seem to have been crafted into artifacts. It does seem certain, however, that the horse (and perhaps the chariot) played an important role; the quantity of horse bits probably indicates an organized cavalry (or chariot) force. Furthermore, the many weapons suggest that war was important in the history of Luristan, but whether for defense, conquest, or both is not known. Nevertheless, the mere existence of so large a body of material in itself suggests local wealth, power, and some form of political organization.
What major changes occurred in the Bronze Age
The British Museum had acquired the first of its Luristan bronzes in 1854, followed by others in 1885, 1900, 1914, and 1920. One of them was listed in the museum’s catalogue file as from Mesopotamia, another from the Lake Van region in eastern Turkey. Until the late 1920s such objects continued to appear sporadically, but mass plundering of Luristan tombs seems to have begun in that decade. Although various years have been suggested, 1927 or 1928 seems most likely, for by 1929 and 1930 museums in New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, Brussels, and Hamburg had acquired multiple specimens, and others were being offered for sale in London and New York (e.g., by N. Heeramaneck). The specific event that triggered this activity is unknown, but it accelerated as the result of growing demand for these exotic objects among Western museums and collectors and continued without pause up to the 1980s (see Muscarella, 1988a, pp. 33f.; 1988b, pp. 112f.).
Archeological knowledge of Bronze Age Iran has been derived primarily from intensive regional studies in which systematic surface surveys have been combined with excavation at sites having long, well-defined stratigraphic sequences and with more limited excavations designed to obtain information on specific periods (; for an outline of the results of these excavations, a detailed chronology, a discussion of chronological problems, and a full set of references, see Voigt and Dyson).
Trade in Bronze Age Mesopotamia : AskHistorians
When living in Sedona Arizona in the 1990's I spent many years as an instructor for art students at the Sedona Art Center and in my foundry. Part of the instruction presented to students was on the history of the bronzing process. Early in my career I had developed an interest in the bronze age cultures which had advanced the use of copper in art and ancient weapons and I kept a portfolio of my studies and findings on ancient crafting in bronze for the students to access if they had an interest.
Trade in Bronze Age Mesopotamia
Reconstructions of the linguistic and historical geography of eastern Iran suggest that the area was occupied in the 3rd and 2nd millennia by proto-Indo-Aryan speakers (Burrow, 1973) and that Iranian-speaking groups began to move in between about 1400 B.C. and the early 1st millennium (Gnoli, 1980), three or four centuries after the beginning of the decline of the cities. It is relevant to this problem that horse bones and equestrian figurines have been found for the first time in late 2nd-millennium contexts in southern Baluchistan (Jarrige, 1983). Furthermore, sherds of Andronovo pottery, derived from southern Siberia and traditionally linked by scholars with Iranian tribes, appear for the first time in central Asia at the end of the Bronze Age (i.e., the end of the Namazga/Namāzgāh VI period), half a millennium after the onset of urban decline (Biscione, 1977; L’Asie centrale, 1988).
AMA - Bronze Age Archaeology and History : …
Another complication in the study of Luristan bronzes is the problem of forgery. Aside from genuine material, a number of manifestly modern creations have surfaced in the market over the years. Some of these creations bear decorative scenes engraved on sheet metal of bronze, silver, and gold that have been accepted by unsuspecting scholars as genuine examples of ancient imagery and religious representation (e.g., Ghirshman, 1958). Other forgeries are aftercasts or adaptations of ancient pieces (Muscarella, 1977b, pp. 171ff.). Although some writers have insisted that forgeries of Luristan artifacts were rare or nonexistent before World War II (Survey of Persian Art XIII, p. A/3; Vanden Berghe, 1991b, p. 9; De Waele, p. 4), the evidence suggests that they began to surface on the market in the early 1930s (Pope, 1932, p. 667; Stark, p. 29; Calmeyer, pp. 138f.). It may be that, once genuine Luristan bronzes were known, the demand was too great for the plunderers to supply or perhaps only a few dealers controlled the supply and others turned to forgeries to “catch up.” In any event, it is the common pattern for forgeries to appear after a period of active sales and then to continue to be manufactured for decades (Muscarella, 1988b, p. 119 n. 2).
Chapter One “Prelude to the Age of Ancient Empires” and then ..
Many modern languages are derived from this early speechof these central Asian tribes who conquered Europe, India, and theupper stretches of the Mesopotamian plains.