Religion and Science (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Mathematicians and scientists and philosophers are ,and transcend religions and cultures.

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A major impetus for Arabic science was the patronage of the Abbasidcaliphate (758–1258), centered in Baghdad. Early Abbasid rulers,such as Harun al-Rashid (ruled 786–809) and his successorAbū Jaʿfar Abdullāh al-Ma’mūn (ruled813–833), were significant patrons of Arabic science. The formerfounded the Bayt al-Hikma (House of Wisdom), whichcommissioned translations of major works by Aristotle, Galen, and manyPersian and Indian scholars into Arabic. It was cosmopolitan in itsoutlook, employing astronomers, mathematicians, and physicians fromabroad, including Indian mathematicians and Nestorian (Christian)astronomers. Throughout the Arabic world, public libraries attached tomosques provided access to a vast compendium of knowledge, whichspread Islam, Greek philosophy, and Arabic science. The use of acommon language (Arabic), as well as common religious and politicalinstitutions and flourishing trade relations encouraged the spread ofscientific ideas throughout the empire. Some of this transmission wasinformal, e.g., correspondence between like-minded people (see Dhanani2002), some formal, e.g., in hospitals where students learned aboutmedicine in a practical, master-apprentice setting, and inastronomical observatories and academies. The decline and fall of theAbbasid caliphate dealt a blow to Arabic science, but it remainsunclear why it ultimately stagnated, and why it did not experiencesomething analogous to the scientific revolution in WesternEurope.

Ideas and OpinionsOut of My Later YearsScience,Philosophy and Religion, A Symposium,

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It is this mythical, or rather this symbolic, content of the religioustraditions which is likely to come into conflict with science. This occurswhenever this religious stock of ideas contains dogmatically fixed statementson subjects which belong in the domain of science. Thus, it is of vitalimportance for the preservation of true religion that such conflicts beavoided when they arise from subjects which, in fact, are not really essentialfor the pursuance of the religious aims.

Does there truly exist an insuperable contradiction between religionand science? Can religion be superseded by science? The answers to thesequestions have, for centuries, given rise to considerable dispute and,indeed, bitter fighting. Yet, in my own mind there can be no doubt thatin both cases a dispassionate consideration can only lead to a negativeanswer. What complicates the solution, however, is the fact that whilemost people readily agree on what is meant by "science," theyare likely to differ on the meaning of "religion."


Do they believe religion and science can co-exist

That the media know that they are peddling untruths isdemonstrated by these tricks they get up to. If they were confident of the truthof their case there would be no need to fake the coverage. They have beenfrequently caught out faking their numbers and graphs, but only a few internetsurfers know about it. If you think you have a good case, you can afford to presentboth sides, but they don’t. The great majority of the population have no ideathat there is an alternative view. That is not science, it is religion.

Global Warming as Religion and not Science - Number …

The main source of the present-day conflicts between the spheres ofreligion and of science lies in this concept of a personal God. It is theaim of science to establish general rules which determine the reciprocalconnection of objects and events in time and space. For these rules, orlaws of nature, absolutely general validity is required--not proven. Itis mainly a program, and faith in the possibility of its accomplishmentin principle is only founded on partial successes. But hardly anyone couldbe found who would deny these partial successes and ascribe them to humanself-deception. The fact that on the basis of such laws we are able topredict the temporal behavior of phenomena in certain domains with greatprecision and certainty is deeply embedded in the consciousness of themodern man, even though he may have grasped very little of the contentsof those laws. He need only consider that planetary courses within thesolar system may be calculated in advance with great exactitude on thebasis of a limited number of simple laws. In a similar way, though notwith the same precision, it is possible to calculate in advance the modeof operation of an electric motor, a transmission system, or of a wirelessapparatus, even when dealing with a novel development.

The Faraday Institute for Science and Religion

Though I have asserted above that in truth a legitimate conflict betweenreligion and science cannot exist, I must nevertheless qualify this assertiononce again on an essential point, with reference to the actual contentof historical religions. This qualification has to do with the conceptof God. During the youthful period of mankind's spiritual evolution humanfantasy created gods in man's own image, who, by the operations of theirwill were supposed to determine, or at any rate to influence, the phenomenalworld. Man sought to alter the disposition of these gods in his own favorby means of magic and prayer. The idea of God in the religions taught atpresent is a sublimation of that old concept of the gods. Its anthropomorphiccharacter is shown, for instance, by the fact that men appeal to the DivineBeing in prayers and plead for the fulfillment of their wishes.