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For most of Western history, circumcision was seen as a barbaric practice

Jun 07, 2011 · Larry Bell Contributor

Between the red blood cells were various smallerstructures that both practitionerstold him were "parasites." One said theywere "possibly rickettsiae".I am well-aware of "alternative practitioners"who show people their own blood cells on a TV screen,along with "holistic" interpretations.

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Should Kids Be Banned From First and Business Class?

One can certainly advocate for a client whose need for services is questioned, and it is easiest to do this when clear, competent treatment plans and records are produced. If a third party refuses payment and a client cannot or does not wish to pay out of pocket, the therapist should attempt a resolution consistent with the client's needs (e.g., offering a reduced fee or making a referral to an agency offering more affordable fees). There is no obligation to continue treating such clients indefinitely, although some reasonable interim coverage should be provided. Again, no client should ever be abandoned in the middle of a crisis situation.

The case of Mr. Lucre and Ms. Poore represents one type of abandonment of a client by the therapist, but what of the more general situation when a client cannot pay for services rendered or for continuing services? Should the therapist terminate services in the midcourse of treatment, or does that represent abandonment of the client as well? The ethical therapist will attempt to avoid abandoning clients for financial reasons with two specific strategies. The first is never to contract for services without first clarifying the costs to the client and reaching an agreement on affordability. The second is not to mislead the client into thinking that insurance or other such coverage will bear the full cost of services when it seems reasonably clear that benefits may become exhausted before the client’s need for service is over. When a client becomes unemployed or otherwise can no longer pay for continued services during the course of therapy, the therapist should remain especially sensitive to the client's needs. If a client cannot realistically be helped under existing reimbursement restrictions and the resulting process might be too disruptive, it is best simply to explain the problem and not take on the prospective client. While it may be necessary to terminate care or transfer the client's care elsewhere over the long term, this should never occur abruptly or in the midst of a crisis period in the client's life.