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From the initial appearance of about 2.0-1.8 mya, Europe was periodically buried under the ice sheets that began growing and receding when the first stone tools were made, so tended to appear and disappear in Europe. The fact that humans evolved and spread during an ice age has led to competing hypotheses about many aspects of humanity’s rise. Although , and there have been 17 identified episodes of advancing and retreating ice sheets, particularly in North America and northern Eurasia, the early ones were not as severe, and they did not achieve , as the diagram below shows. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)
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There is a long-standing relationship between the EU and Canada in the area of nuclear energy. Canada is the leading supplier of natural uranium to the EU for electricity generation. The Euratom-Canada Agreement on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, which entered into force on 18 November 1959, is the oldest bilateral agreement between the EU and Canada. Over its lifetime, the agreement has been amended four times via exchanges of letters, and supplemented in 1998 by a further agreement in the field of nuclear research. The EU and Canada also participate in the Generation IV International Forum, which is a multinational research initiative to develop the next generation of nuclear energy systems to provide competitively-priced and reliable energy in a safe and sustainable way.
Two major events happened soon after appeared, and their sequence seems to support the Cooking Hypotheses. The first of which was the migration of from Africa ; they spread to and by 1.8 mya (perhaps 1.6 mya in the case of Java), and . It was the , and may have become the first multi-continental member of the human line, and certainly the first widespread one. Favorable climates and a lower Himalaya range and Tibetan Plateau may have encouraged that migration. Unlike Miocene apes that began to migrate from Africa 16.5 mya, there was no unbroken forest to sustain journey to East Asia. Those migrants would have to sleep on the ground for much of the journey and were not adapted for sleeping in trees, . From today’s viewpoint, it may seem that they were adventurers, but as will also become obvious with the spread of , in one individual’s lifetime, there was probably only modest movement, expanding into the next uninhabited valley or two. Such an expansion happened one valley at a time, one generation at a time, to make it across a continent in a few thousand years for those that could adapt to changing biomes. Migrating at the same latitude would not have presented great climatic issues. As those migrations happened during the ice age, they were along southern Eurasia. There is no evidence yet that ever made it to Australia, probably because of the ocean crossing required for passage.
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Whatever the causes were, the early Miocene was warm, and as with around the North Pole, migrating in the Arctic became easy again, and North America was invaded by Eurasian animals . The prominent descended from Asian migrants, and the strange-looking was also an Asian immigrant, which had claws on its forefeet, like a sloth’s. also migrated from Asia, and the arrived. Those North American days saw of a that was rhino-sized. A lived then, and the appeared in the early Miocene and migrated to Asia from North America. The general Oligocene cooling gave rise to tough, gritty plants, and deer, antelope, elephants, rodents, horses, camels, rhinos, and others developed , which had greatly expanded enamel surfaces for grinding those plants. Carnivores also migrated from Asia, such as , an , and . North America’s rodents and rabbits, , continued to diversify. Later in the Miocene’s warm period, the trickle of Asian immigrants became a flood, including a that weighed up to 600 kilograms (1,300 pounds), and two large groups of immigrant rhinos, and several genera , displaced endemic ones. In a late-Pliocene count of North American mammalian genera, a third were not native to North America. But North American fauna was unscathed compared to other continents. Below is an artist's conception of Miocene North America. (Source: public domain from Wikipedia)
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Eurasian mountain building was not the only such Miocene event. The , which I have , began , and so is one of Earth’s younger and more rugged ranges. The of California also formed in the Miocene, and the grew into a formidable climatic barrier. The Rocky Mountains also had renewed uplifting in the Miocene, and the . In the mid-Miocene, the northward movement of Australia toward Asia initiated the plate collision that created the Indonesian archipelago, which blocked tropical flow between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Grinding tectonic plates have created the , which is Earth’s most seismically active region, and contributed to many Cenozoic mountain-building and volcanic events, but it is only a pale imitation of Mesozoic volcanism. The has steadily declined over the eons, and in about one billion years the plates will cease to move and Earth will become geologically dead, as Mars is today. Life on Earth will then quickly end, if it has not already expired. Complex life will likely be long gone by then.