the 1990s in Vernonia, Oregon sparked fear in the school district ..

Vernonia School District V. Acton Essay - 1137 Words
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Supreme Court Set To Rule on High School Drug …

Impact
In 1986, applying the "disruption test" from the Tinker case, the Supreme Court upheld the suspension of Matthew Fraser, a 17-year-old senior at Bethel High School in Tacoma, Washington, who gave a school speech containing sexual innuendos (Bethel School District v. Fraser). The Court said "it is a highly appropriate function of public school education to prohibit the use of vulgar and offensive terms in public discourse."

Vernonia School District v. Acton : drug testing in schools
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Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School …

Ruling
The Supreme Court upheld the use of affirmative action in higher education. "Student-body diversity is a compelling state interest that can justify the use of race in university admissions," the Court said. But the Court emphasized that the University of Michigan's policy was acceptable because the school conducted a thorough review of each applicant's qualifications and did not use a racial quota system—meaning it did not set aside a specific number of offers for minority applicants.

Vernonia School District V
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Vernonia School District admits there was no evidence that James Actonhad used drugs, but argues the mandatory drug testing program for studentathletes was necessary because teachers said drugs were causing major disciplinaryproblems at the school. After drug education and using dogs to sniff outdrugs failed, the school started testing student athletes for marijuana,cocaine, and amphetamines at the beginning of each season and then randomlythroughout the year. The school district had attempted to institute a mandatorydrug testing program for all students involved in extracurricular activities,but later limited it to only student athletes.

Vernonia School District v
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Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada, 542 U.S

Impact
The Supreme Court has consistently respected parents' rights to discipline their children. But even though the government isn't required under the Constitution to protect children, all states assume this responsibility through child protection laws. The Supreme Court has generally deferred to state and local governments to enforce these laws and to intervene in cases of mistreatment.

Kyllo v. United States - Wikipedia

Ruling
The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Bridget. Allowing students to meet on campus to discuss religion after school did not amount to state sponsorship of religion, the Court said: "We think that secondary-school students are mature enough and are likely to understand that a school does not endorse or support student speech that it merely permits."

Minutemancd's Blog | LABBB Career ..

The year before, in 1984, Congress had addressed this issue in the Equal Access Act, which required public schools to allow religious and political clubs if they let students form other kinds of student-interest clubs. When Bridget challenged the principal's decision, her lawsuit became the Supreme Court's test case for deciding whether the Equal Access Act was constitutional under what is known as the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof."

The Right to Search Students - Educational Leadership

Ruling
The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the school district. Schools must balance students' right to privacy against the need to make school campuses safe and keep student athletes away from drugs, the Court said. The drug-testing policy, which required students to provide a urine sample, involved only a limited invasion of privacy, according to the Justices: "Students who voluntarily participate in school athletics have reason to expect intrusions upon normal rights and privileges, including privacy."

Des Moines Independent Community School …

Background
James Acton, a 12-year-old seventh-grader at Washington Grade School in Vernonia, Oregon, wanted to try out for the football team. His school required all student athletes to take drug tests at the beginning of the season and on a random basis during the school year. James's parents refused to let him be tested because, they said, there was no evidence that he used drugs or alcohol. The school suspended James from sports for the season. He and his parents sued the school district, arguing that mandatory drug testing without suspicion of illegal activity constituted an unreasonable search under the Fourth Amendment.