This paper reports on the results/conclusions of their study:
Dr. Patrick Michaels has demonstrated this effect is a common problem with ground- based recording stations, many of which originally were located in predominantly rural areas, but over time have suffered background bias due to urban sprawl and the encroachment of concrete and asphalt ( the ). The result has been an upward distortion of increases in ground temperature over time(2). Satellite measurements are not limited in this way, and are accurate to within 0.1° C. They are widely recognized by scientists as the most accurate data available. (1).
ROFLMAO… now that really IS a pathetic response!!
Could someone enlighten me of the origin of this continuous spectrum, is it vibrational -colissional? And so in effect it really is a continuous spectrum and not a discrete line spectrum.
I have read the paper and the author talks of line spectra. He goes into detail as to the isotopic effects. I understand the origin of all of these lines, These are from changes in vibrational levels in the molecules. They are complicated by simultaneous transitions in the rotational energy levels thus giving a forrest of individual peaks. These vib-rotational lines are relatively high in energy and do not have much coincidence with black body radiation at 288K. What does have coincidence with black body radiation is the so-called continuous radiation absorption by CO2 at low infra red energy. These do not seem to correspond with vibrational bands. Did Reinhart account for this radiation? He does not seem to have said so in his paper.
At the heart of climate change is the greenhouse effect, ..
While CO2 has 3 absorption peak frequencies it’s the one around 15 micron bandwidth that is the focus of GHE for CO2. IR at say 23 microns isn’t captured by CO2 and thus CO2 has no GHE for that bandwidth (other GHGs do). Furthermore the CO2 molecule emits at the same frequency it captures. This is true in still air (no convection) or moving air (no convection).
What Causes the Greenhouse Effect? « Roy Spencer, PhD
There is some thermalizing of the atmosphere by CO2 but not much. Oxygen and Nitrogen are impervious to 15 micron bandwidth energy, which is what CO2 captures and emits.
the role of the greenhouse effect as ..
The physics says that any energy absorbed by CO2 in the atmosphere is immediately thermalised to the remaining 99.96% of the atmosphere and dealt with by the gravity/pressure/thermal effect.
Myths on the Greenhouse Effect - GDRC
Schuurmans, 1983 (2XCO2 = ~0.3°C )
For detection purposes we need to know the so-called transient response of climate to a given increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration (observed or predicted). Transient response patterns, however, are generally much less well known than equilibrium responses. The problems encountered in specifying the transient CO2-induced climate signal are discussed in detail by Michael et al. in his book. From his review we may conclude that there is some general agreement amongst different modellers that the transient response of global mean temperature to increased CO2 concentration of the atmosphere at present amounts to less than 0.5 K (estimates of [temperature response] now varying between 0.2 and 0.4 K).
ECS is a common measure of the heating effect of greenhouse ..
Ollila, 2012 (2X CO2 = 0.51 °C)
Scientists are still debating the reasons for “global warming”. The author questions the validity of the calculations for the models published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and especially the future scenarios. Through spectral calculations, the author finds that water vapour accounts for approximately 87% of the greenhouse (GH) effect and only 10% of CO2. A doubling of the present level of CO2 would increase the global temperature by only 0.51 °C without water feedback.