Scientific Revolutions (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

The two most significant social consequences of the First Industrial Revolution (c.

The topic of scientific revolutions has been ..

Although the importation of slaves continued to grow as new plantations were developed, it was the industrial revolution that would have the most profound impact on the slave industry.

Although the Industrial Revolution did have a few drawbacks the positive outcomes of the revolution outweighed the negative effects.

Cause and Effects of the French Revolution Essay

When it comes to revolution on Kuhn’s account, the social orderbreaks down dramatically. And here his strategy of taming creativenormal research so as to make room for articulated discovery (thereduction of research problems to puzzles) also breaks down. Kuhn hadto acknowledge that he had no idea how the scientists in extraordinaryresearch contexts manage to come up with brilliant new ideas andtechniques. This failure exacerbated his problem of explaining whatsort of continuity underlies the revolutionary break that enables usto identify the event as a revolution within an ongoing field ofinquiry. As he later wrote:

This cultural change for the majority of the populace, focused on promoting the ownership of manufactured goods, also impacted the French Revolution.

Was there a Scientific Revolution that replaced pre-scientificthinking about nature and society and thus marked the transition tomodernity? Which later developments, if any, are truly revolutionary?Are attributions of revolution usually a sign of insufficienthistoriographical understanding? In any case, how are such episodes tobe explained historically and epistemologically? Are they contingent,that is, historical accidents and thus perhaps avoidable; or are theysomehow necessary to a “progressive” science? And, if so,why? Is there an overall pattern of scientific development? If so, isit basically one of creative displacement, as Kuhn claimed? Do allrevolutions have the same structure and function, or are there diverseforms of rupture, discontinuity, or rapid change in science? Do theyrepresent great leaps forward or, on the contrary, does theirexistence undercut the claim that science progresses? Does theexistence of revolutions in mature sciences support a postmodern or“post-critical” (Polanyi) rather than a modern,neo-Enlightenment conception of science in relation to other humanenterprises? Does their existence support a strongly constructionistversus a realist conception of scientific knowledge claims? Arerevolutions an exercise in rationality or are they so excessive as tobe labeled irrational? Do they invite epistemological relativism? Whatare the implications of revolution for science policy? This entry willsurvey some but not all of these issues.

Industrial Revolution - Wikipedia

The Revolution improved the overall state of Great Britain mainly through the innovation and invention of new technologies, improvement in communication and transportation, and enhancing the lifestyles of the British commoner....

Free industrial revolution Essays and Papers - 123HelpMe

The Scientific Revolution supposedly encompassed all of science ornatural philosophy, as it then existed, with major socialimplications, as opposed to more recent talk of revolutions withinparticular technical fields. Have there been other multidisciplinaryrevolutions? Some have claimed the existence of a “secondscientific revolution” in the institutional structure of thesciences in the decades around 1800, especially in France, others(including Kuhn 1977a, ch. 3) of a multidisciplinary revolution in the“Baconian sciences” (chemistry, electricity, magnetism,heat, etc.) during roughly the same time period. Enrico Bellone 1980),Kuhn, and others Kuhn have focused on the tremendous increase inmathematical abstraction and sophistication during the early-to-midnineteenth century that essentially created what we know asmathematical physics. Still others have claimed that there was ageneral revolution in the sciences in the decades around 1900. (Seealso Cohen 1985, chap. 6, for discussion of these claims.)

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For many historians, ‘the Scientific Revolution’ nowdescribes a topic area rather than a clearly demarcated event. Theyfind it safer to divide the Scientific Revolution into several moretopic- and project-specific developments. However, in their unusuallycomprehensive history of science textbook, Peter Bowler and Iwan Morus(2005) query of practically every major development they discusswhether or not it was a genuine revolution at all, at least by Kuhnianstandards. More recently, David Wootton’s (2015) is arevisionist account that returns to a more heroic understanding of theScientific Revolution.

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Commitment to the existence of deep scientific change does not, forall experts, equate to a commitment to the existence of revolutions inKuhn’s sense. Consider the historically–orientedphilosopher Stephen Toulmin (1953, 1961, 1972), who wrote of“ideals of natural order,” principles so basic that theyare normally taken for granted during an epoch but that are subject toeventual historical change. Such was the change from the Aristotelianto the Newtonian conception of inertia. Yet Toulmin remained criticalof revolution talk. Although the three influential college coursetexts that he co-authored with June Goodfield recounted the majorchanges that resulted in the development of several modern sciences(Toulmin and Goodfield 1961, 1962, 1965), these authors could write,already about the so-called Copernican Revolution: