The Parthenon and Phi, the Golden Ratio

The construction of the Parthenon was a key political issue not only for Athens, but for all Greece
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The period of peace initiated by the victory of Eurymedon did not last long. In 465 B.C. Athens had to initiate a major military campaign against Thasos, a campaign that marked the beginning of the rupture of the alliance between Athens and Sparta. By 461 B.C. the supporters of a warlike foreign policy, the party of Pericles, had imposed their way and Cimon was ostracized. As a result of this policy Athens found herself at war with both Sparta and Persia. The end of the period of peace could explain why the construction of Parthenon I did not proceed beyond the platform.

When work began on the Parthenon in 447 BC, the Athenian Empire was at the height of its power
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Mathematics of the Parthenon- by Liliana Usvat …

During this festival, glorious athletic contests were held.

• Conventional date for the inauguration of the archaic Parthenon.

The Parthenon in Athens, built by the ancient Greeks from 447 to 438 BC, is regarded by many to illustrate the application of the Golden Ratio in design.
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The construction of the Parthenon was a key political issue not only for Athens, but for all Greece. Among others, Thucydides deals extensively with this issue in explaining the causes of the Peloponnesian War, the catastrophe that brought Greek classical civilization to a tragic end. The beginning of the construction in 447 B.C. is related to a decisive turning point in Greek politicis: In 448 B.C. occurred the death of Cimon, the leader of the oligarchic party in Athens, which stood for an understanding with Sparta and for a sacred union of all the Greeks in a national war against Persia. Cimon’s death gave a chance to Pericles, the leader of the democratic party, to proceed to a total reversal of Athenian policy. Pericles’ aim was to transform the Delian league, which had been created for the purpose of opposing Persian expansion, into an instrument of Athenian imperialism. The key point of this imperialistic policy was to force the other Greek cities to pay tribute to Athens. Money had been originally collected by Athens on the ground of providing for the transport of the Athenian fleet which defended all the Greeks against Persia. However, by developing the Athenian fleet, the policy of Cimon built the power of the democratic party. According to Greek political conceptions and practices, only those who served their country militarily had the right to participate in political decisions. The lower classes could not serve in the land army, which was open to those able to provide their own armor and, even more important, those who had received the gymnastic education that only the relatively well-to-do could afford. The poor an uneducated could serve as oarsmen in the fleet and receive pay for it. Hence, the development of the fleet permitted the formation of a democratic party whose program was political power and state subsidies for the poor and uneducated. The policy of Pericles aimed at collecting tribute from other Greek cities for the purpose of establishing various forms of financial subsidies for the poor and the democrats. This was the reason why democracy and imperialism came to be identified.

Mathematics of the Parthenon . by Liliana Usvat. With the exception of the Great Pyramid in Egypt, the Parthenon of Athens has …
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Because the steps of Parthenon III do not fit the outline of the substructure, it became necessary to raise the level of the terrace around the Parthenon in order to conceal the substructure completely, including the four top layers which had been intended to be exposed. Syriopoulos and other writers before him have suggested that this was achieved by raising the height of the Cimonian Wall. But Gorham Phillip Stevens has argued, in my opinion conclusively, that this was achieved by constructing a new wall halfway between the substructure and the Cimonian Wall. This wall runs parallel to the souh side of the substructure and extends to the east of it. As a result the terrace to the south of the Parthenon came to be at two levels: the southern half, just to the north of the Cimonian Wall, remained at the old level, whereas the northern half, to the north of the new wall, was raised higher in order to cover the top layers of the substructure. The new retaining wall (called S2 by archeologists) had foundations that did not reach the rock, but were supported by the earth filling piled up behind the Cimonian Wall. Since the new wall rests on loose earth, one tried to improve its foundations by placing at the very bottom of them column drums similar to those imbedded in the north wall. This is one more piece of evidence that these drums came from the workshop of Parthenon III.

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This was the first large stone temple dedicated to Athena, which is known by the conventional name of Hecatompedos because it was 100 feet long.

Peisistratus assumes power in Athens for the first time.

• The mature period of the black-figure style, with outstanding artists including Lydos, the Amasis Painter and Exekias.

• The Persian Empire is founded by the Achaemenid Cyrus, who enlarged his state to encompass the territory from the Indus river to the coast of Ionia.

• The lyric poet Simonides of Keos composed elegies, choral poems, victory hymns, dithyrambs, parthenia (songs sung by maidens to the flute), laments and epigrams, including his excellent poems to those fallen at Thermopylae and Marathon.

• The end of the Lydian kingdom is marked by the fall of Sardis.

Old Testament vs Secular Historical Timeline

Plutarch reports that with the money supplied by Cimon there was built not only the south wall of the Acropolis, but there was also initiated the construction of the Long Walls linking Athens with Peiraeus. Plutarch lists other projects in the Agora and the Academy and adds: ”It was he, likewise, who first embellished the Acropolis with those fine and ornamental places of exercise and resort, which they afterwards so much frequented and delighted in.” In this policy of providing employment to the poor through public works, Cimon may have started the construction of the Parthenon; Pericles completed it for exactly the same reasons. The archaeological data support what is suggested by the historical information, since the building of the south wall, or Cimonian Wall, is related to the erection of the substructure of the Parthenon. Hence, it is safe to conclude that Parthenon I began to be built in the period of Cimon’s political leadership, when it appeared that Athens was finally at peace and when the unemployment caused by the peace provided one further justification for starting to replace the temple destroyed by the Persians.