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This Islamic state, in fact, drew from the resources of
the entire known world.
[See Abbasid Dynasty: The Islamic world under the Abbasid Dynasty.]
Trade, Industry, And Agriculture
From the eighth to the twelfth century the Muslim world enjoyed enormous
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Caliph Abu-al-Abbas forecast that Baghdad would become the "most
flourishing city in the world"; and indeed it rivaled Constantinople for that
honor, situated as it was on the trade routes linking West and East.
Furthermore, Abbasid patronage of scholarship and the arts produced a rich and
complex culture far surpassing that then existing in western Europe.
The location of a new capital at Baghdad shifted Islam's center of
gravity to the province of Iraq, whose soil, watered by the Tigris and
Euphrates, had nurtured the earliest human civilization.
The Abbasids owed their
initial success to the discontent of the non-Arabic Muslims, who were the
primary leaders in the towns and in the Shia.
The fall of the Umayyad Dynasty marked the end of Arab domination within
Islam; the Abbasid caliph made great effort to establish equalitarian
treatment of all Muslims.