Aaron, R. (1971). John Locke. Oxford: The Oxford University Press

Locke was one of the first modern philosophers to even have an academic career.

Locke, John | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Locke’s examination of the way in which the rational consciousness of self-evident truths is actually reached refers them to "the being of things themselves duly considered, and to the application of those faculties that are fitted to receive and judge of them when duly employed." Thus the reasoning which runs through the first book is a return, in a more general and therefore more philosophical way, to that defence of individual rational insight against blind dependence on authority which was offered in the Letters on Toleration.

But this was not in philosophy, whose university form at the time Locke did not like.

John Locke (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

The distinction between modes and substances is surely one of the mostimportant in Locke’s philosophy. In contrast with substances modes aredependent existences—they can be thought of as the ordering ofsubstances. These are technical terms for Locke, so we should see howthey are defined. Locke writes: “First, Modes I callsuch complex Ideas, which however compounded, contain not inthemselves the supposition of subsisting by themselves; such are thewords signified by the Words Triangle, Gratitude, Murther,etc” (II. xii.4, p. 165). Locke goes on to distinguishbetween simple and mixed modes. He writes:

Cranston, M. (1969). John Locke (rev. ed. Green and Co., Ltd. London: Longmans,

The new science of mathematical probability had come into being on thecontinent just around the time that Locke was writing theEssay. His account of probability, however, shows little orno awareness of mathematical probability. Rather it reflects an oldertradition that treated testimony as probable reasoning. Given thatLocke’s aim, above all, is to discuss what degree of assent we shouldgive to various religious propositions, the older conception ofprobability very likely serves his purposes best. Thus, when Lockecomes to describe the grounds for probability he cites the conformityof the proposition to our knowledge, observation and experience, andthe testimony of others who are reporting their observation andexperience. Concerning the latter we must consider the number ofwitnesses, their integrity, their skill in observation, countertestimony and so on. In judging rationally how much to assent to aprobable proposition, these are the relevant considerations that themind should review. We should, Locke also suggests, be tolerant ofdiffering opinions as we have more reason to retain the opinions wehave than to give them up to strangers or adversaries who may wellhave some interest in our doing so.


John Locke on Education - NewFoundations

In addition to the kinds of ideas noted above, there are alsoparticular and abstract ideas. Particular ideas have in them the ideasof particular places and times which limit the application of the ideato a single individual, while abstract general ideas leave out theideas of particular times and places in order to allow the idea toapply to other similar qualities or things. There has beenconsiderable philosophical and scholarly debate about the nature ofthe process of abstraction and Locke’s account of it. Berkeley arguedthat the process as Locke conceives it is incoherent. In part this isbecause Berkeley is an imagist—that is he believes that allideas are images. If one is an imagist it becomes impossible toimagine what idea could include both the ideas of a right andequilateral triangle. Michael Ayers has recently argued that Locke toowas an imagist. This would make Berkeley’s criticism of Locke verymuch to the point. Ayers’ claim, however, has been disputed. (See, forexample, Soles, 1999.) The process of abstraction is of considerableimportance to human knowledge. Locke thinks most words we use aregeneral (III, I. 1. p., 409). Clearly, it is only general or sortalideas that can serve in a classificatory scheme.

John Locke: Political Philosophy

In advocating a kind of education that made people who think forthemselves, Locke was preparing people to effectively make decisionsin their own lives—to engage in individual self-government—and to participate in the government of their country. TheConduct reveals the connections Locke sees between reason, freedom andmorality. Reason is required for good self-government because reasoninsofar as it is free from partiality, intolerance and passion andable to question authority leads to fair judgment and action. We thushave a responsibility to cultivate reason in order to avoid the moralfailings of passion, partiality and so forth (Grant and Tarcov 1996,xii). This is, in Tarcov’s phrase, Locke’s education forliberty.

John Locke, the Social Compact, and the Founding Fathers

Locke, indeed, founds the tradition of British Empiricism and also, for some time, a discipline of philosophical psychology, which thus transitions from a metaphysical theory of the soul to an empirical study of the mind.

John Locke (1632-1704) - Friesian School

Although Locke's initial fame rested on his , I long had a poor opinion of him as a philosopher just because of that book, before I was aware of the contents and significance of the .