Supreme Court nullifies Civil Rights Act of

Ku Klux Klan (KKK) founded to maintain white supremacy through intimidation and violence

Supreme Court validates the principle of "separate but equal" in



"Refugee in America," a short poem by Langston Hughes, is a great poetic example of the "African American struggle for equality theme."



Langston Hughes

"There are words like Freedom
Sweet and wonderful to say.
On my heart-strings freedom sings
All day everyday.

There are words like Liberty
That almost make me cry.
If you had known what I knew
You would know why."

After analyzing the poem, the word "Freedom" is talking about how African Americans are free men when slavery was abolished. The second stanza is all about how things are not equal. Liberty is defined as: "Freedom from control, interference, obligation, restriction, hampering conditions, etc.; power or right of doing, thinking,
speaking, etc., according to choice." Black people did not have liberty, and liberty is all about equality. Referencing the U.S.

Freedman's Bureau formed during Reconstruction to assist freed slaves in the South

19th Amendment gives women the right to vote

Words like liberty make Hughes "cry" because that's what America is based upon and liberty is what he doesn't have.


Another good example comes from "The Great Debaters." A major topic in that movie is segregation.

Civil Rights Act grants citizenship to native-born Americans except Indians

“The Color Purple” showed a lot of racism that was very realistic, Langston Hughes wrote poems with racist influences and wrote poems about racism.

14th Amendment grants equal protection of the laws to African Americans