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DRAUGR, DRAUGAR (Old Norse, "phantom," related to PIE drowgos, "deceive"; plural form is draugar or draugur): Also called aptrgangr ("again-walkers"), draugar are undead beings from Old Norse, Icelandic, Faroese, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian mythology. Animated blood-drinking corpses, these monsters were either death-blue ("hel-blár") or "corpse-white" ("nár-fölr") in color. Folklore depicted them as superhumanly strong, foul-smelling, and vengeful. They enjoyed crushing or suffocating victims, as depicted in the Hrómundar Saga. They possessed a number of powers, most notably the ability to drive men or animals insane, to control weather, to prophesy, to increase their mass at will, and to turn into smoke or pass through rock. The oldest legends distinguished between sea-draugar (vengeful spirits of the drowned), land-draugar (types that wandered at night and often preyed on shepherds), and a third variation known as haugbui. The latter type lurked in , protecting the treasure-hoard buried therin. Any marginalized, evil, or unhappy person might become a draugr after death (especially those who were greedy or vengeful in life), but draugar were also infectious. Those they kill turn into draugar after death, as is the case in the story of Glam in Grettir's Saga and the story of the shepherd in the Eyrbyggja Saga. Along with vague Anglo-Saxon allusions to the (OE wiht), the Old Norse legends of draugar were Tolkien's primary inspiration for barrow-wights in The Lord of the Rings. Incidentally, in Nynorsk (modern Norwegian) translations of Tolkien's work, the word draugr is applied to the barrow-wights as well as to the Nazgûl ring-wraiths and the dead men of Dunharrow. Cf. , .
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4. Is Jim Huckleberry’s “true” father? | Seize the day
DEMAND D'AMOUR (French, "demand of love"): A medieval motif common in French and continental courtly literature in which a hypothetical situation would appear as a "love-problem," and the listeners would attempt to resolve the issue through debate. Such debates may have been common in real-life medieval party-games or flirtations among the nobility before they became literary motifs. By the late medieval period, many collections of such hypothetical situations and accompanying questions had appeared, such as the Middle English Demaundes of Love. Chaucer's narrators in the Knight's Tale, the Franklin's Tale, and The Parliament of Fowels explicitly ask their audiences to make judgments of this sort at various points in the tale, and the marriage group as a whole in The Canterbury Tales implicitly asks the readers to explore what makes a happy marriage.
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DVOYEVERIE (Russian, "double faith"): The confusion or mixture of pagan and Christian elements in medieval Russian folklore (Harkins 118).
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Deutsche mythologie profoundly influenced Tolkien's myth-making in The Lord of the Rings. Tolkien plundered the Germanic legends for names, situations, creatures, and themes in his work (as well as material from Finland and Ireland). Readers of Tolkien will find the names of certain dwarves, elves, and other characters in The Eddas, while the Rohan speak in Germanic tongues like Old English. Throughout The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien imitates Germanic compounding with neologisms such as Ring-Wraiths, etc. Likewise, in the various protogonists' more dire battles, Tolkien has these characters imitate the Germanic idea of (q.v).
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DEUTSCHE MYTHOLOGIE (Ger. "Teutonic Mythology")(1) an important mythographic study by Jakob Grimm first published in 1835. Deutsche Mythologie was a foundational and strikingly comprehensive work studying Germanic mythology via the tools of etymology and folklore. (2) The combined mythology of the North, West, and East Germanic tribes--i.e., Viking sagas and myths in the northern reaches of Iceland and the Scandinavian Peninsula, Germanic deities from the continent mentioned in Roman records, Lombardic historical myths of the Italian Peninsula, the tales of the (now-extinct) Goths from Eastern Europe, and the lost pagan practices of the Anglo-Saxons before they converted to Christianity in Britain--especially in the sense these various myths may connect to each other in older, proto-Germanic form. As part of the philological mission to reconstruct the ancestral proto-Indo-European language using comparative linguistics, many nineteenth-century philogists applied similar comparative tools to explore the original myths of the proto-Germanic tribes that gave rise to the various legends among the three branches (North, West, and East) of Teutonic ethnic groups.
SparkNotes: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Context
DIME NOVEL: Cheap or sensationalist publications, especially the series begun by E. F. Beadle in 1860--consisting of reprints of thrilling tales, violent action, brief romance, and episodes from famous wars and dramatic historical periods such as the American Civil War or the Frontier period. These dime novels were usually paperbound and sold for 10 cents in the 1920s in America, hence the common nick-name (Shipley 169). The first major example was Ann Sophia's Stephens's Malaeska: The Indian Wife of the White Hunter, which sold over 300,000 copies in 1860 and remained immensely popular for a decade. Other famous authors who produced dime novels included Edward L. Wheeler, who created "Deadwood Dick," and J. R. Coryell, who created "Nick Carter," a detective who appeared in over one thousand separate short stories written by a dozen ghost writers up through the 1960s (Holman 162). Also called a (for the cheap paper it was printed on), the dime novel as a mass market publication was the next generation of the earlier British "" of previous years.