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Sexual violence in South Africa - Wikipedia
Such explicit prohibition was necessary, because even after the code was in place, sexual violence was common to the wartime experience of Southern women, white and black. Whether they lived on large plantations or small farms, in towns, cities or in contraband camps, white and black women all over the American South experienced the sexual trauma of war.
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Violence Against Women in Turkey | Advokat Dyavola
It is possible, however, that the effect of alcohol is less direct. Drinking may increase the likelihood of victimization by placing women in settings in which their chances of encountering a potential offender are higher than the average. Several studies have suggested that bar settings increased women's vulnerability to violence independent of the increased vulnerability due to alcohol consumption. For example, exposure to obnoxious behavior, as well as sexual and physical violence, were predicted by the frequency of going to bars (Fillmore, 1985; Lasley, 1989). Alternatively, alcohol consumption by women may be misperceived and misinterpreted by the men they meet as a sexual availability cue. Although scientific evidence suggests that women become less physiologically aroused after drinking, men perceived them as more sexual, more likely to initiate sexual intercourse, and more aroused by erotica (Crowe and George, 1989; George et al., 1990, 1995; Corcoran and Thomas, 1991). In one study, 75 percent of college men admitted to getting a date drunk or high on drugs to try to have sex with her (Mosher and Anderson, 1986).
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tionships are conveyed by culturally transmitted scripts. Scripts support violence when they encourage men to feel superior, entitled, and licensed as sexual aggressors with women as their prey, while holding women responsible for controlling the extent of sexual involvement (White and Koss, 1993). Parents socialize daughters to resist sexual advances and sons to initiate sexual activity (Ross, 1977). By adolescence, both boys and girls have been found to endorse scripts about sexual interaction that delineate a justifiable rape. For example, approximately 25 percent of middle school, high school, and college students state that it is acceptable for a man to force sex on a woman if he spent money on her (Goodchilds and Zellman, 1984; Muehlenhard et al., 1985; Goodchilds et al., 1988).
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The Facts on Violence Against Women
A large empirical literature documents the psychological symptoms experienced in the aftermath of rape (for reviews see Frieze et al., 1987; Resick, 1987, 1990; McCann et al., 1988; Roth and Lebowitz, 1988; Hanson, 1990; Lurigio and Resick, 1990). Rape (with the exception of marital rape) is more likely than partner violence to be an isolated incident, which creates a somewhat different course of recovery. For many victims, postrape distress peaks approximately 3 weeks after the assault, continues at a high level for the next month, and by 2 or 3 months later recovery has begun (Davidson and Foa, 1991; Rothbaum et al., 1992). Many differences between rape victims and nonvictimized women disappear after 3 months with the exception of continued reports of fear, self-esteem problems, and sexual problems, which may persist for up to 18 months or longer (Resick, 1987). Approximately one-fourth of women continue to have problems for several years (Hanson, 1990).
Violence against women | The Japan Times
Victims of intimate partner violence and rape exhibit a variety of psychological symptoms that are similar to those of victims of other types of trauma, such as war and natural disaster. Following a trauma, many victims experience shock, denial, disbelief, fear, confusion, and withdrawal (Burgess and Holmstrom, 1974; Walker, 1979; Browne, 1987; Herman, 1992; Janoff-Bulman, 1992; van der Kolk, 1994). Assaulted women may become dependent and suggestible and have difficulty undertaking long-range planning or decision making (Bard and Sangrey, 1986). Although a single victimization may lead to permanent emotional scars, ongoing and repetitive violence is clearly highly deleterious to psychological adjustment (Follingstad et al., 1991). In one national study, the more a woman had been assaulted, the more psychological distress she experienced (Gelles and Harrop, 1989).
Background Information on Sexual Violence used as a …
Women involved with a violent partner may be frequent users of medical services even if they do not identify the reason for their visit as the violence. They are likely to show evidence of injuries in various stages of healing, indicating the ongoing nature of the abusive behavior (Burge, 1989). Among women patients in a community-based family practice clinic who were living with a partner, recently separated, or divorced, 25 percent were assaulted by their partners during the previous year, and 15 percent sustained injuries from a partner (Hamberger et al., 1992). Some of this violence is lethal. Between 1976 and 1987, 38,468 people were killed by their intimate partners; 61 percent involved men who killed women. Among white couples, 75 percent of the victims were women (Browne and Williams, 1989, 1993).